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ch16

endocrine PHCC

QuestionAnswer
Endocrine refers to glands that secrete hormones within
Hormones are chemical catalysts
A catalyst is anything causing a reaction to occur
The endocrine glands include: Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal glands Pancreas
Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal glands Pancreas The endocrine glands include:
The pituitary gland is AKA hypophysis
hypophysis AKA the pituitary gland
The pituitary (hypophysis) is AKA “master gland”
“master gland” The pituitary (hypophysis)
The pituitary (hypophysis) is called the “master gland” because it controls other endocrine glands by secreting hormones
The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is located at the base of the brain and the size of a pea
Growth Hormone (GH)
Growth Hormone (GH) causes growth and development of the body
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) will stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete their hormones
Hormones secreted from the adrenal glands are AKA steroids
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)AKA thyrotropin or T7.
TSH (thyrotropin or T7) stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones
Gonadotropic hormone: aids in the development of secondary sexual characteristics
Female secondary sexual characteristics include: a. Breast development b. Pubic, body, and Axillary hair c. Widening of pelvis for childbirth Menses
Male secondary sexual characteristics include: a. Facial, pubic, and body hair b. Lower voice c. Development of the superior male body musculature
Primary sexual characteristics refer to whether you are male or female
Prolactin is AKA lactogenic hormone
Prolactin is AKA lactogenic hormone Stimulates breast development and milk production in women.
Oxytocin (OT)
Oxytocin (QT) stimulates uterine contractions during labor.
Synthetic oxytocin (OT) is called Pitocin
Synthetic means artificially made
Pitocin is AKA a “pit drip”
Pitocin is used to induce labor
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (ADH)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates the maturation of a follicle into an ovum
A follicle is AKA egg cell (oocyte)
A mature oocyte is called an ovum
The thyroid gland is located adjacent (next) to the larynx
The thyroid gland is made up of sections called lobes
Hormones secreted by the thyroid include 1.Thyroxine AKA T3 + T4. 2.Calcitonin. Stimulates the bones to absorb calcium (Ca).
Thyroxine AKA T3 + T4. Has a direct influence on metabolism
Metabolism is the rate at which the body burns energy
A synthetic thyroxine (T3+T4) is called Synthroid
Calcitonin. Stimulates the bones to absorb calcium (Ca)
A synthetic calcitonin is called Miacalcin
Calcitonin is not calcium (Ca)
The parathyroid glands are located posterior to the thyroid gland
The hormones secreted by the parathyroid glands is Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Stimulates the bones to release calcium (Ca) into the bloodstream.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) will be secreted when blood calcium (Ca) levels fall
A blood condition of deficient calcium (Ca) is called hypocalcemia (calcipenia)
Blood calcium levels will fall if a person does not ingest enough daily dietary calcium (Ca)
The recommended daily minimum requirement of calcium (Ca) is three/four – 8 ounce glasses of milk or the equivalent every day
Foods rich in calcium include dairy, broccoli, and sardines
Homeostasis refers to a continuous struggle to maintain a metabolic balance in the body
The body will try to maintain calcium (Ca) homeostasis by releasing parathyroid hormone
The parathyroid hormone (PTH) will cause the bones to release calcium (Ca) into the bloodstream
The tissue that has priority for the calcium (Ca) stored in the bones is muscle (heart)
Over time, parathyroid hormone (PTH) can cause osteomalacia and osteoporosis
The adrenal glands are located in the suprarenal areas
Suprarenal means above a kidney
Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands include: 1.Cortisol 2.Aldosterone 3.Adrenalin AKA epinephrine (“epi”)
Cortisol: The functions include: a.Aids with the adverse effects of stress b.Aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Carbohydrates are necessary for energy
Fats are necessary for the absorption of certain vitamins
Proteins are necessary for growth and repair
Aldosterone: Necessary for the regulation of the body salts
The salts of the body are AKA electrolytes (“lytes”)
Electrolytes (“lytes”) include: a.Sodium (Na) b.Potassium (K) c.Chloride (Cl)
Adrenalin AKA epinephrine (“epi”) The secretion promotes a “fight or flight response”
Adrenalin AKA epinephrine (“epi”) It Includes: a.Tachycardia b.Tachypnea c.Bronchodilation d.Pupil dilation e.Pallor
The tachycardia, tachypnea, and bronchodialtion aid the body with increased respiration and delivery of oxygenated blood to tissues
The pupils dilate to increase your visual field (VF)
Pallor is caused by shunting of blood from the periphery to the major organs and large muscle groups
Shunting means to divert or redirect
The pancreas is located retrogastric
Retrogastric means posterior to the stomach
A hormone excreted by the pancreas is insulin
Insulin is necessary for glucose to enter cells
Insulin is released when blood sugar (BS) rises
If there is insufficient insulin, the glucose does not enter the cells, and they will starve for energy
A synthetic insulin is called Humulin
Cortex Outer
Adrenocorticohypherplasia Excessive development of an adrenal cortex
Adrenopathy Disease condition of an adrenal gland
Endocrinologist A specialist in the study of the endocrine system
Endocrinopathy Any disease condition of the endocrine system
Exophthalmic or exophthalmous Abnormal protrusion of the eye balls
Polydipsia A condition of excessive thirst
Polyuria A condition of excessive urination
Adrenalectomy Surgical removal of an adrenal gland
Parathyroidectomy Surgical removal of a parathyroid gland(s)
Thyroidotomy Surgical incision of the thyroid gland
Thyroparathyroidectomy Surgical removal of the thyroid gland and parathyroid gland(s)
Acromegaly Enlargement of the extremities
Adrenalitis Inflammation of an adrenal gland
Hypercalcemia A blood condition of excessive calcium
Hyperglycemia Blood condition of excessive sugar
Hyperkalemia Blood condition of excessive potassium
Hyponatremia Blood condition of deficient sodium
Thyroid scan X-ray of the thyroid using a radioactive contrast
Which department will perform this test? Nuclear Medicine
Thyroid ultrasound A diagnostic image of the thyroid using sound waves
Exocrine glands Glands that secrete out:
Glands that secrete out are a. sebaceous glands (sebum) b. sudoriferous glands (sweat) c. cerumrnous glands (cerumen) d. lacrimal glands (tears)
BS Blood sugar (glucose), Bowel Sounds, Breath sounds
Ca Calcium or Cancer
FBS Fasting Blood Sugar
GTT Glucose tolerance test
gt A drop
gtt Drops
I Iodine
PBI Protein bound iodine
RAIU Radioactive iodine uptake
Anytime you see the term iodine in a test, it will usually refer to the thyroid gland
TFT Thyroid function tests
Created by: Urania