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Fluid Therapy AT4

animal tech 4 review for test 1

Fluid administration is necessary when an animal is dehydrated, during surgery, blood loss, shock,has a dz resulting in a animals depletion of normal fluid,electrolyte, and acid-base balance
The total volume of fluid required to treat an animal can be approximated by fluid needed to rehydrate, fluid needed for maintenance, and fluid needed to correct on-going losses
One pound of water is equivalent to 1 pint or 480 mls
The body is made up of what % of water 60%
the body weight of water is divided into what two groups intracellular fluids and extracellular fluids
what are intracellular fluids and how much of body water do they account for inside the cell; account for 2/3 of body h2o
what are extracellular fluids and how much of body water do they account for outside the cells ; account for 1/3 of body h2o
What are the two types of extracellular fluids vascular and interstitial
vascular space is what plasma
what is interstitial space in the tissue spaces between blood vessels and cells
WHat is diffusion movement of solutes from high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration to have equilization
Is diffusion passive process or active process passive
What is active transport movement of solutes from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration
Is active transport passive or active process active process and requires energy
What is osmosis movement of FLUID from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration, until balance is maintained
IS osmosis acitve or passive process passive process
What is the difference between hydrostatic and osmotic pressure hydrostatic pushes fluid out, osmotic pressure pulls fluid in
What is osmotic pressure also called oncotic pull
what is osmotic pressure colloids are large molecular weight particles present in a solution. proteins in the plasma contribute to the colloid osmotic pressure. more protein in the plasma holds the fluid in the vessels
What is the most important organ for fluid balance kidney
what does the kidney do for fluid balance conserve or excrete fluid
if the kidneys are conserving fluid what will the urine be concentrated
if the kidneys are excreting fluid what will the urine be dilute
what are th purpose of the hormones for the body to maintain fluid balance hormones signal the kidneys to conseve or excrete fluid
Which of the following is used to monitor fluid therapy a) appetite b) bowel movements c)temperature d) urine output d) urine output
What part of the eye can be used to indicate fluid overload? conjunctiva
What is hyponatremia decrease of sodium in the blood
what is hypernatremia increase of sodium in the blood
WHat is hyperkalemia increase in potassium in the blood
What is hypocalcemia decrease in calcium in the blood
what is hypercalcemia increase in calcium in the blood
When do animals become hypokalemic V/D, or increase urine outputs
WHat causes hyperkalemia can be caused by decreased urine output or Addison's dz
What can cause hyponatremia renal failure, vomiting, diarrhea, congestive heart failure, addisons dz, or fluid overload
Is hypernatremia common no , but can be caused by inadvertant over-feeding of salt
What is eclampsia a syndrome including convulsions and coma occuring n animals soon after birth of the young
Dz of which gland can cause elevated calcium parathyroid
How do electrolytes help regulate the acid-base balance in the body by maintaining the hydrogen ion concentrations in bodily fluids, particularly in extracellular fluids
An electrolyte that releases a hydrogen ion in water is called acid
When an elctrolyte binds a hydrogen ion in water is called a base
Arterial blood pH less that 7.35 is called what Acidemia
Arterial blood pH greater that 7.45 is called what Alkalemia
postive ions are called cations
negative ions are called anions
What are the primary ions in the body sodium potassium, chloride, phosphate,and bicarbonate
What electrolyte imbalance is most likely to be found in a cat with total urethral obstruction. A) Hyperkalemia B)Hypokalemia C) Hyponatremia D) Hypercalcemia A) Hyperkalemia
Maintenance of pH in this range is essential to survival and depends on 3 major mechanisms in the body what are they Chemical buffers, respiratory system and renal system
What is the response of chemical buffers immediate process
OF chemical buffers, respiratory systme , or renal system which one is the longest out of the three renal system
What is metabolic acidosis producing too much acid or hanging on to them for to long
what is metabolic alkalosis increase loss of acids
What is respiratory acidosis increases the co2 in blood, hypoventalation→ build up of co2,impaired gas exchange in lungs
What is respiratory alkalosis decrease the co2 in blood, hyperventalation-decrease co2 in the lungs
WHat are the 3 goals of fluid therapy maintenance, replace deficits, and replace ongoing losses
WHat are sensible losses roughly the equilvalent of urine output, they are measurable, considered part of the daily requirements
what are insensible losses immeasurable losses, lossed via GI Tract and respiratory tract
How much water does it take to maintain the body's functions 60 ml/kg/day
What are some abnormal or accelerated loss of fluids high environmental temperature, physical activity, fever, hemmorhage, polyuria,diarrhea,vomiting, and hyperventilation
Normal CRT is what 1-2 seconds
what is a normal heart rate for an unstressed dog 60-120 beats/min
what is a normal heart rate for an unstresses cat 100-200 beats/min
What is the most common artery to get a pulse femoral
What are the four things mentioned in our notes that help assess perfusion status CRT, HR, Weight, & BP
What clinical signs are seen with less than 5% dehydration no clinical signs
If an animal is 5-6% dehydrated it is condsidered what mild dehydration
What are the clinical signs seen with 5-6% dehydration SKIN= slightly doughy, inelastic consistency
If an animal is moderate dehydrated what percent is it 6-8%
What types of clinical signs are seen with moderate dehydration SKIN=inelastic, EYES= duller than normal and slightly sunken into orbit, MM= tacky to dry
IF the animal is 10-12% dehydrated it is considered what Severe dehydration
What are the clinical signs of severe dehydration SKIN= no elasticity, EYES=dry,deeply sunken, MM=dry,cyanotic, and possibly cold, CRT= prolonged or absent, HR=increased, PULSE=weak
If a patient is 12-15% dehydrated the patient is in what state SHOCK, and death is imminent
WHat is the normal PCV for a dog 37-55%
What is the normal PCV for a cat 24-45%
THe higher the value of PCV indicates what The higher the degree of dehydration
What is the normal total protein for a dog 5.4-7.6 g/dl
WHat is the normal total protein for a cat 6.0-8.1 g/dl
The higher the value of TP indicates what THe higher degree of dehydration
What is the normal SG for a dog 1.025 (1.001-1.060)
What is the normal SG for a cat 1.030 (1.001-1.080)
Specific gravity only reflects dehydration if what organs are healthy kidneys
Normal urine production is 1-2 mls/kg/hr
IN general how long are sub q fluids absorbed 6-8 hours
Which type of fluids are admininstered Sub Q Isotonic
IV fluids are administered if dogs and cats are at what percent dehydrated 7%
WHat is the basic reydration formula %dehydrated in decimal form x body weight (kg) x 1000 = mls to rehydrate
The amount of deficit is given over how long to prevent fluid overload 24 hours or longer
Contradictions for aggressive fluid thereapy are cerebral edema, pulmonary contusions, conjestive heart failure
What is the drip rate formula vol of fluid(mls/day or mls/hr) x drip set divided by time in sec
What are the most common fluid administration set macro drip sets which administer 1ml of fluid in 10,15, or 20 drops
What is a microdrip set they administer 1 ml of fluid in 60 tiny drops
What weight group are microdrips usually used for anything under 10kg
Created by: scoobysnax



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