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MoveSci 110 #2

QuestionAnswer
The inside of the cell has a resting potential of what with respect to the outside? -70mV
During resting potential, which ion is found in high concentration inside/outside the cell? Inside-potassium (K+) Outside-sodium (Na+)
Which two ions are responsible for the electrical potential difference? Sodium (Na+) and Potassium (K+)
When neuron is at rest, K+ channels are open, to keep neuron at negative potential
Dramatic jumps in voltage across the cell membrane are indicative of what? Action potentials
What is the role of transmitter substance? To open up channels in the membrane which depolarize the cell
Differentiate between spatial and temporal summation of action potentials Spatial summation makes depolarization because of the action of multiple cells synapsing on the postsynaptic neuron Temproal summation makes depolarization because of several synaptic potentials close together in time
IT is known that EPSP dies down after only 3-4 msec, how can action potential be passed on to the next neuron? What are the two processes that allow for this to occur? Many cells firing or one cell firing many times in a row Spatial summation and temporal summation, respectively
List the three main components of a muscle spindle. Intrafusal fibers, sensory neuron endings, and gamma motor neuron endings
Name two subtypes of intrafusal muscle fibers and differentiate between their ability to detect static and dynamic movement Nuclear bag, gives dynamic information Nuclear chain, gives perception of space, relative location
Which afferent neurons are best able to respond quickly to both stretching and sensing the rate of change? Where can they be found? 1a afferents; equatorial region (middle) of both bag and chain
Which intrafusal muscle fibers do type 2 afferents mainly innervate and why are they less sensitive to dynamic change in muscle length when compared to type 1a afferents? Chain fibers, because they are thinner than nuclear bags so they are worse at detecting change
What is the main difference between alpha and gamma motor neuron fibers? Alpha innervates extrafusual fibers, gamma innervates intrafusal fibers
The activation of what enhances dynamic response of 1a afferent neurons? Gamma dynamic motor neurons
Where are golgi tendon organs located and what are they sensitive to? Located in muscle tendons; sensitive to muscle contractions (force muscle exerts)
Which muscles have highest concentration of spindles? Extraocular, neck, and hand
What is the purpose of co-activation of alpha and gamma motor neurons during voluntary contraction? Without coactivation, spindle sensory neurons would be silent during voluntary muscle contraction
Name the ascending pathway that transmits somatosensory information to the cortex Dorsal-column-medial lemniscal system
Which neurons transfer information from muscle, tendons, and joints to the somatosensory cortex? Are there any exceptions? Dorsal column (DC) neurons; yes, leg propioceptors have their own private pathway to the brainstem
What is cross-modality processing? Info from joint receptors, muscle spindles, and cutaneous receptors is integrated to give info about movement, which is then laid on a map of the body, which is distorted to reflect relative weight of sensory info from different areas.
What are the benefits of cross-modality processing? It is essential to the coordination of movements in space
Do receptive fields of neurons in the somatosensory cortex change? If so, under what conditions? Injury and experience can change dimensions
Describe "lateral inhibition" The cell that is excited inhibits the cells next to it, thus enhancing contrast between excited and nonexcited regions of the body
Where is lateral inhibition found within the CNS with respect to somatosensation and how is it useful to humans? Dorsal column, able to perceive the activation of a single tactile receptor in the hand
A person with a lesion in area 5 would have troubles with learning of skills that use information regarding the position of the body in space
Created by: 810966662654062