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Epi basic concepts

Epi basic concepts and measures

What are pathogens characterized by? Ability to infect, severity of disease, ability to cause death
Define a foodborne case. One person having illness after eating a food.
Define a foodborne outbreak. A group of people having a similar illness after eating a food, in excess of what is normally expected.
What are the key steps in an outbreak investigation? - Detect and validate outbreak existence - Understand the outbreak: distribution and associations/ combinations - Develop and test hypotheses - Make recommendations to control the outbreak
Define virulence/pathogenicity. Capacity of a pathogen to cause disease.
What factors determine pathogenicity? Nature of pathogenic agent or pathogen, amount of exposure, characteristics of the person who is exposed.
Define incubation period. Time between exposure (e.g. eating contaminated food) and appearance of symptoms or clinical disease.
Define infectious dose. Number of pathogen cells needed to be ingested to cause illness.
Define pathogen. Microorganisms that cause disease.
Define foodborne illness. Diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.
What is a measure of "risk"? Proportion of unaffected individuals who eventually develop the outcome of interest. it is the probably of disease.
What is an attack rate? how is it calculated? It is the risk of getting sick from a specific exposure. Number of cases or sick people among those exposed divided by Total number of people exposed or infected
What is prevalence? Number of existing cases in the population either at a certain point in time (= point prevalence) or during a period of time (period prevalence)
Define an incidence rate. Development of new cases over time; it is expressed in person-time and takes into account the length of observation or follow-up for each person eligible
True or false? When persons are no longer at risk, they cannot be included in the denominator when calculating person-time. True
Who was the father of epidemiology and what did do? John Snow; he investigated a cholera outbreak in London in 1854 and implemented the first experimental study (intervention = shutting down Broad Street water pump)
What factors/ elements make up the disease triad? Host, agent, environment (and sometimes vector/ vehicle)
What is epidemiology? The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related events in specified populations and its application to control health problems
Why do we use age-standardized mortality rates? To make relevant comparisons in risks of mortality, that account for differences due to age
Created by: epistack