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Bio Exam 1

frick me man

Specialized cell types organized in a way that provides a specific function form tissues, which build organs
An investigator who conducts an experiment to determine how temperature changes affect the rate at which the heart beats is most likely a(n) physiologist
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function.
In a negative feedback mechanism, the response of the effector reverses the original stimulus.
Maintaining a stable internal environment typically requires negative feedback
The activities of an anatomist consist of ______, whereas those of a physiologist consist of _____ observing body parts; studying functions of body parts
Homeostatic mechanisms are said to act by negative feedback because changes away from the normal state stimulate changes in the opposite direction
Positive feedback mechanisms move conditions away from the normal state.
Which of the following is not an example of a homeostatic mechanism in the human body? pulling blankets over yourself when cold at night
A researcher discovered a new hormone that raises blood calcium levels. According to the principles of negative feedback, this hormone would be secreted when blood calcium levels decrease.
Studies at the biochemical and molecular levels would be most appropriate for learning about the physiological functions of organs.
Anatomy is the study of structure.
Which of the following lists best illustrates the idea of increasing levels of complexity? Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
Which of the following is not true of organelles? They are only in cells of humans.
Potential energy is stored energy that could do work but is not doing so.
Molecules that form when electrons are shared unequally between atoms are called polar molecules.
Cations and anions that dissociate in water are sometimes called electrolytes, because they can conduct an electrical current.
Glycogen is the storage carbohydrate in animals
Normal blood pH is maintained within a range of 7.35 - 7.45.
The amount of matter in an object is its mass
Which of the following organic groups does a steroid belong to? lipid
A substance composed of two or more different types of atoms is a(n) compound and a molecule.
The presence of water in our bodies allows us to cool the body with sweat. maintain a fairly constant body temperature. provide an environment for chemical reactions. keep tissues moist and reduce friction.
Phospholipids are found in cell membranes.
ATP can be synthesized from ADP. stores and releases energy in the cell. is associated with a reversible reaction. is associated with anabolism and catabolism.
Substances dissolved in the liquid portion of a solution are called solutes.
Adjacent amino acids in a polypeptide chain are held together by peptide bonds
Starch is the storage carbohydrate in plants.
All of the synthesis reactions in the body are called anabolism.
Denaturation is a change in the three-dimensional structure of a protein.
The pH value is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions
Carbon dioxide is considered a(n) molecule and a compound.
The energy stored in ATP is a form of ________ energy. chemical
Sodium chloride is considered a(n) compound.
An organic molecule consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; the molecule is probably an amino acid.
Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water.
Lipids can insulate and help prevent heat loss.
Large carbohydrates are formed from smaller units called monosaccharides.
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids
The hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a molecule of water are held together by polar covalent bonds provide much of the structure of body cells and tissues.
In ionic bonding, electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Triglycerides are composed of glycerol and fatty acids.
Chemical energy is a form of potential energy within chemical bonds
What protein structure results from folding or coiling of a polypeptide chain caused by hydrogen bonds between amino acids? secondary structure
Which of the following is the correct sequence from largest to smallest? cell, protein, amino acid, atom
Proteins provide much of the structure of body cells and tissues.
Polysaccharides dissociate or separate from one another.
Energy is the capacity to do work.
Reactions that use water to split molecules apart are called _______ reactions. hydrolysis
Cellulose is the nondigestible plant polysaccharide.
Which of the following chemical reactions best represents the synthesis of ATP? ADP + Pi + energy → ATP + H2O
Lipids sucrose (C12H22O11)
A neutral atom contains the same number of electrons and protons.
Fatty acid A has 10 double covalent bonds scattered throughout its carbon chain while fatty acid B has only single covalent bonds between the carbons in its chain Fatty acid B is saturated.
If the potential energy in the chemical bonds of the reactants is greater than the potential energy in the chemical bonds of the product, energy is released by the reaction.
Kinetic energy is the form of energy that actually does work.
Subatomic particles located around the nucleus of an atom are electrons
DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose.
Solution A has a pH of 10 and solution B has a pH of 2. Which of the following statements about these solutions is true Solution B has a higher hydrogen ion concentration than solution A.
A buffer will resist drastic changes in the pH of the solutions
Solution A increases its acidity. This means that the number of hydrogen ions has increased.
The model that helps explain how an enzyme works is the lock-and-key model.
Which of the following is a synthesis reaction? Two amino acids are bonded together to form a dipeptide
Which of the following chemical reactions best represents the decomposition of ATP? ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi + energy
Which of the following is NOT true of enzymes? One enzyme can have many reactions.
What type of cell has abundant mitochondria? cardiac muscle cells (require large amounts of ATP)
he cytoplasm is made up of Both cytosol and organelles.
Experimental manipulation to increase the energy output of the cell might include increasing the number of mitochondria.
Cells that lack ribosomes cannot engage in protein synthesis.
What is the organelle where subunits of ribosomes are manufactured? nucleolus
Which of the following structures is found in the nucleus? chromosome
A cell that produces many proteins for secretion would have large numbers of rough ER and Golgi apparatus.
Which of the following cell organelles is CORRECTLY matched with its function? microtubules - cell support
What type of cell has abundant ribosomes? fibroblast (makes protein fibers)
Cells of the small intestine and kidney tubules have extensions that increase their surface area called microvilli.
Endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached to it is called rough ER.
Which of the following organelles may or may not have ribosomes attached? endoplasmic reticulum
Organelles vary in number and type depending on cell function.
If you compare a cell with a manufacturing plant that exports goods, the cell's _____ could be compared to the manufacturing plant's shipping department. Golgi apparatus
What is the only human cell with a flagellum? spermatozoa
Which of the following activities is a function of the plasma membrane? recognition of bacterial cells by the immune system
In general, water-soluble molecules diffuse through the ______ _______; and lipid-soluble molecules diffuse through the ______ _____. membrane channels; lipid bilayer
The environment outside the plasma membrane is most appropriately referred to as extracellular.
Plasma membrane phospholipids have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails.
______ act like identification tags in the glycocalyx that enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign and diseased cells Glycoproteins
The predominant lipid in the cell membrane is a phospholipid.
Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are ________, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are __________. hydrophobic; hydrophilic
Plasma membrane phospholipids have nonpolar fatty acid tails. form a bilayer. have polar phosphate heads. create a selectively permeable barrier
_____ are membrane proteins that bind to signals by which cells communicate. Receptors
The plasma membrane regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell.
Glycolipids would contain both lipids and carbohydrates.
The main components of the plasma membrane are proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
The plasma membrane is selectively permeable. This means only certain substances can pass through it.
Which of the following is NOT consistent with active transport? movement is with a concentration gradient
The sodium-potassium pump located in the plasma membrane actively transports potassium into cells.
Which of the following events occurs in the secondary active transport of glucose? Na+ ions and glucose are cotransported by the same carrier molecule.The Na+-K+ pump Na+ concentration gradient inside the cell.,Energy comes from diffusion of Na+ down their concentration gradient,Glucose is moved against concentration gradient
White blood cells digest other cells and so would be expected to have large numbers of lysosomes.
Active transport requires ATP.
Endocytosis is the bulk uptake of material through the plasma membrane by vesicle formation.
The movement of molecules against their concentration gradient is called active transport.
Experimental manipulation to increase the energy output of the cell might include increasing the number of mitochondria.
The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of less concentration is called diffusion.
In the process of diffusion, net movement of substances is always from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
All of the following processes can move substances out of a cell EXCEPT phagocytosis.
Cyanide stops the production of ATP. Which of the following processes would be affected? active transport
Pinocytosis involves ingestion of liquids rather than particles.
Which of the following categories of epithelium is based on cell shape? columnar
To determine that a type of epithelium is squamous, which of the following is most important? the shape of the most superficial epithelial cells
Which of the following epithelial types is mismatched with its function? squamous epithelium - stretching
What type of epithelial tissue is found in the urinary bladder? transitional epithelium
The epidermis of the skin is composed of stratified squamous epithelium.
A tissue that has a fluid matrix is blood.
What type of cells contain large amounts of lipids? adipocytes
Which of the following characteristics is NOT consistent with simple squamous epithelial tissue? has good blood supply within it
An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________ simple columnar.
__________________ epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas __________________ epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion. Simple squamous; stratified squamous
The three types of protein fibers found in connective tissue are collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers.
Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues.
_______________ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs. Epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue that can stretch or is subjected to stress would have many desmosomes
What attaches epithelial cells to the basement membrane? hemidesmosomes
A thick, sticky secretion produced by goblet cells is called mucus.
Bone has a rich blood supply
Stratified epithelium consists of multiple layers of cells.
A cell that forms fibrous connective tissue would be called a fibroblast.
What type of epithelial tissue is found lining the trachea? pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What type of epithelial tissue is found in the mouth? stratified squamous epithelium
Collagenous fibers are very abundant in tendons, ligaments, and the deeper portion of the skin.
Which of the following types of connective tissue is mismatched with its matrix? cartilage - highly vascular matrix
A coiled fibrous protein in connective tissue that is stretchy is called elastin.
Connective tissue in tendons is dense regular collagenous tissue.
Blood consists of cells and a ground substance made of formed elements. false
__________________ secrete the rubbery matrix of cartilage, whereas ________________ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue. Chondroblasts; fibroblasts
Cartilage heals slowly after an injury because it has few, if any, blood vessels.
In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them. tight junctions
What type of epithelial tissue is found in the kidney tubules? simple cuboidal epithelium
Dense regular collagenous connective tissue would be found in a ligament.
various types of epithelium are classified by the shape of cells and number of cell layers.
Epithelial tissue is characterized by tightly packed cells
_______________ epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the ________________ Nonkeratinized; vagina
All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia pseudostratified columnar
______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs Simple squamous
Which type of epithelium has the following characteristics: multiple layers, squamous cell shape, dead outer layers of cells, and keratin present in some cells? stratified keratinized squamous epithelium
Collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers in connective tissues all contain proteins
The basement membrane is found between epithelium and connective tissue.
All cells attached to the basement membrane but not all cells reach free surfaces is a description of pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
__________________ tissue is highly vascular, whereas _______________ is not. Areolar; cartilage
Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion. simple cuboidal epithelium
Epithelial tissue is distinguished from connective, muscular, or nervous tissue by its basement membrane.
A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________. simple columnar; small intestine
Adipose tissue functions as an insulator and a site of energy storage.
_____________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes. Goblet
A general characteristic of connective tissue is that it interstitial fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with a light microscope.
Blood cells are produced in hemopoietic tissue found in red bone marrow.
The membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts consists of epithelium and lamina propria.
Created by: alexs13