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Effective teaching/ rehabilitation Provide simple-achievable goals, Simple to complex-success based, On-going assessment and revision based on results, Use time efficiently, Provide corrective feedback, the goal is rehabilitation or compensation, Activities in motoric hierarchical order
Eliminate possible fears and/or reticence because 1) Fear of unknown, 2) lack of control, 3) Cultural conditions
Use listening techniques, restatement, involvement Nodding, restating
Intrinsic feedback what you feel inside “good job” any type of praise - not tangible
Extrinsic feedback giving someone money, stars, food, paycheck - Tangible
Token Economy give something that has an eventual extrinsic reward
Planned ignoring getting what you want even through something is occurring --> accomplish task Types
Types of feedback -Negative -Negative corrective -Positive General -Positive Corrective -Positive Specific
Negative FB you suck
Negative corrective bad throw because arm wasn’t at a good angle
Positive General good job
Positive Corrective that was a great throw but it could have been better if you do this
Positive Specific That was a good throw because your arm was in the right spot
Problem -Client confusion or disruption -Tasks incomplete or done without enthusiasm -Client exhibits anger, frustration -Lack of improvement, progress
Response -Clear, concise, consistent expectations stated in behavioral terms -Assess appropriateness of task, involve the client -Don’t take it personally, ask why, personal & staff safety foremost -Check health condition; simplify task, alter reinforcement
Task Specific (Top Down) 1. Emphasis on the completed task sequence for integration 2. Identify skills necessary for achievement 3. Teach compensatory skills to provide success
Task Analysis (Bottom Up) 1. Discrete/Continuous tasks are broken down into component parts 2. Begin at initial stage and follow task progression
Eliminate Deficiencies 1. Assess present status 2. Instruction is based on the next step in developmental progression 3. Assumes integration of each step prior to beginning the next (task analysis)
Functional Adaptations 1. Modifications through devices, task demands, or rule changes to allow successful participation. 2. Generalization to community environments for functional behavior and participation in community/school/recreation.
Incidental Learning 1. Skills acquire in everyday interactions ancillary to planned learning or regular activities. 2. Disabled frequently miss these.
Effective Practice styles Distributed Practice Massed Practice Whole Practice Part Practice Constant Practice Variable Practice
Distributed Practice Same skill practice for a short time over a number of occasions. Effective when learning new skill
Massed Practice Intense practice on a single skill in a single period. Allows honing a difficult skill.
Whole Practice The entire movement is learned as one concept. Effective when breaking down the skill changes the form of the skill.
Part Practice The skill is taught in parts. Effective in skills involving significant multiple parts.
Constant Practice The skill is repeated as a separate action under the same conditions. i.e. practicing an overhand throw with a partner
Variable Practice The skill is attempted under differing conditions.
Effective skills Closed Skills Open Skills Blocked Practice Random Practice
Closed Skills These can be practiced in a static environment, i.e. Free Throw, Tennis Serve etc.
Open Skills These can be practiced in a changing environment, i.e. dribbling, tennis volley
Blocked Practice Each skill is practiced once during the period for a fixed amount of time.
Random Practice Each skill is practiced in a differing schedule through varied presentations, i.e. Students are fed a volleyball and must decide whether it is appropriate to set, bump, or spike.
Created by: rmart11