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Nervous System

Neurology, medical terminology

TermDefinition
antiepileptic drug capable of preventing or stopping seizures
convulsion alternate name for seizure
EEG record of the electrical activity of the brain
epilepsy chronic brain disorder due to excessive electrical activity
ictal pertaining to, or caused by, stroke or seizure
motor pertaining to nerves that cause movement or secretion
neurology medical specialty of disorders of the nervous system
neurologist one who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system
seizure event due to excessive electrical activity in the brain
tonic in a state of muscular contraction
afferent conducting impulses inward toward the spinal cord or brain
efferent conducting impulses outward away from the brain or spinal cord
ganglion collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
nerve a cord of fibers in connective tissue that conduct impluses
neuron technical term for a nerve cell; cell body with dendrites and axons
plexus a weblike network of joined nerves
visceral pertaining to the internal organs
axon single process of a nerve cell carrying impulses away from cell body
dendrite branched extensions of a nerve cell that receive nervous stimuli
dopamine neurotransmitter; plays a role in memory, pleasure, behavior, learning
endorphin natural substance in the brain for pain relief
myelin fatty sheath that covers the axon of the nerve
neurotransmitter chemical agent that relays messages from one nerve cell to the next
serotonin neurotransmitter; involved in mood, anxiety and sleep
synapse junction between two nerve cells
astrocyte star-shaped cell in the nervous system
blood-brain barrier selective mechanism that protects the brain from toxins and infections
neuroglia connective tissue holding nervous tissue together
oligodendrocyte connective tissue cell of the CNS that forms a myelin sheath
white matter regions of brain and spinal cord occupied by bundles of axons
brainstem region of the brain responsible for vital functions like cardiovascular and respiratory mechanisms
cerebellum most posterior area of the brain; responsible for balance and coordinated movement
cerebrum major portion of the brain; divided into two hemispheres
corpus collosum bridge of nerve fibers connecting two hemispheres
frontal lobe anterior portion of the brain; memory, intellect, behavior, emotion
occipital lobe posterior portion of the brain; visual images, sight
parietal lobe receives and interprets sensory information- pain, pressure, touch, temperature
temporal lobe interpretation of sensory input, sounds, speech
decussate crossover; like the arms of an "X"
cauda equina bundle of spinal nerves in the vertebral canal below the ending of the spinal cord
cervical pertaining to the neck region
dermatome the area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve
intervertebral the space between two vertebrae
meninges three-layered covering of the brain and spinal cord
dementia chronic, progressive, irreversible loss of the mind's cognitive and intellectual functions
aneurysm dilation of an artery or cardiac chamber
hemiparesis weakness of one side of the body
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
ataxia inability to coordinate muscle activity, leading to jerky movements
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs
spasm sudden, involuntary movement of a muscle group
epilepsy chronic brain disorder due to excessive neuronal discharge
postictal occurring after a seizure
cephalalgia pertaining to pain in the head
prion small infectious protein particle
syncope temporary loss of consciousness; fainting
concussion mild head injury
insomnia inability to sleep
Bell's palsy paresis or paralysis of one side of the face
meningitis inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
subdural located in the space between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane
demyelination process of losing the myelin sheath of a nerve fiber
paresthesia abnormal sensation; for example tingling, burning, prickling
electroencephalogram record of the electrical activity of the brain
Created by: Prof Parker