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NASM Domain 3

Program Design

Corrective Flexibility increases joint range of motion, improves muscle imbalances, and corrects altered joint motion (autogenic inhibition)
Active Flexibility improves extensibility of soft tissue and increases neuromuscular efficiency (reciprocal inhibition)
Functional Flexibility maintains integrated, multiplanar soft tissue extensibility and optimal neuromuscular control (full range of motion)
Self-Myofascial Release gentle pressure breaks up knots in muscle and helps release unwanted tension (autogenic)
Static Stretching passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding for at least 30 seconds (autogenic)
Active-Isolated Stretching uses agonists and synergists to dynamically move joints into a range of motion (reciprocal)
Dynamic Stretching uses force production and momentum to move joints through a full range of motion (reciprocal)
Which form of flexibility training includes self-myofascial release and static stretching? corrective flexibility (phase 1)
Which form of flexibility training includes SMR and active-isolated training? active flexibility (phases 2, 3, and 4)
Which form of flexibility training includes SMR and dynamic stretching? functional flexibility (phase 5)
Pyramid Set increasing or decreasing weight with each set
Superset performing two exercises in rapid succession with minimal rest in between
Drop-set performing a set to failure, remove small percentage of load, continue with set
Circuit Training performing a series of exercises, one after the other, with minimal rest between
What is the variation of circuit training that alternates lower and upper body exercises to improve circulation? peripheral heart action
What is a split routine? breaking the body up into parts to be trained on separate days
Vertical Loading performing exercises on the OPT template one after the other, vertically down the template
Horizontal Loading performing all sets for an exercise or body part before moving onto the next
Resistance Exercises in the Stabilization Level (phase 1) consist of: 4/2/1 tempo lower weight, higher reps unstable yet controlled environment
Resistance Exercises in the Strength Level (phase 2, 3, and 4) consist of: 2/0/2 tempo moderate to heavy weight low to moderate reps full range of motion
Resistance Exercises in the Power Level (phase 5) consist of: explosive tempo light weight moderate reps full range of motion
Stage Training progressive cardio training that ensures continual adaptation and minimizes the risk of overtraining and injury
Stage 1: used to improve cardio for healthy sedentary individuals uses HR zone 1 start slowly and work up to 30-60 minutes of exercise
Stage 2: for individuals with low to moderate cardio fitness ready to train at higher intensities uses HR zone 2 intervals, with zone 1 for recovery 1:3 work/rest ratio, progressing to 1:2 and eventually 1:1 work/rest ratio
Stage 3: for advanced excercisers with moderately high cardio fitness levels; increases capacity of energy systems needed at the power level uses HR zones 1, 2, and 3 once per week is adequate, with Stage 2 and Stage 1 days needed to avoid overtraining
Core Exercises in the Stabilization Level (phase 1) involve: little motion through the spine and pelvis improves neuromuscular efficiency and intervertebral stability
Core Exercises in the Strength Level (phases 2, 3, and 4) involve: dynamic eccentric and concentric movements with full range of motion improves dynamic stabilization, concentric and eccentric strength, and neuromuscular efficiency
Core Exercises in the Power Level (phase 5) involve: full range of motion at functionally applicable speeds improves rate of force production
What is the Drawing-in Maneuver? drawing the navel toward the spine to recruit core stabilizers (local stabilization system)
What is Bracing? contracting abdominals, lower back, and glutes together to stabilize the trunk (global movement system)
Training in a multisensory environment will increase demand on the nervous system to activate the right muscles, at the right time, in the right plane of motion
What has been shown to improve both static and dynamic balance ability? balance training performed for at least 10 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks
Balance Exercises in the Stabilization Level (phase 1) of training consist of: little joint motion improves reflexive (automatic) contractions to increase joint stability
Balance Exercises in the Strength Level (phase 2, 3, and 4) of training consist of: dynamic eccentric and concentric movement of the balance leg with full range of motion improves neuromuscular efficiency of the entire HMS
Balance Exercises in the Power Level (phase 5): develops proper deceleration transitions dynamic state to a controlled stationary position reactive joint stabilization
What is the sequence for challenging proprioception from most stable to least stable? Floor Balance Beam Half Foam Roll Foam Pad Balance Disc Wobble Board Bosu Ball
Eccentric Force Reduction
Concentric Force Production
Plyometric (reactive) Training quick, powerful movements involving an explosive concentric contraction preceded by an eccentric action
Amortization (transition) phase the transition between eccentric (loading) and concentric (unloading) muscle actions during plyometric movements
Plyometric Exercises in the Stabilization Level include: little joint motion establishing optimal landing mechanics postural alignment reactive neuromuscular efficiency pausing to stabilize
Plyometric Exercises in the Strength Level include: dynamic eccentric and concentric movement with full range of motion improving dynamic joint stabilization, eccentric strength, rate of force production, and neuromuscular efficiency repetition
Plyometric Exercises in the Power Level include: entire muscle action and contraction -velocity spectrums integrated, functional movements improving rate of force production and optimal force production explosive movement
Speed stride rate x stride length
Agility the ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture
Quickness ability to react and change body position with maximum rate of force production
General Adaptation Syndrome how the body adapts and reacts to stress
What are the 3 stages of General Adaptation Syndrome? alarm reaction, resistance development, and exhaustion
Alarm Reaction the initial reaction to a stressor that activates protective processes in the body
Resistance Development body increases functional capacity to adapt; once adapted, increased stress ks needed to produce a new response
Exhaustion stressor is too much or lasting too long to handle, causing breakdown or injury
Principle of Specificity or Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands Principle (SAID) the body will specifically adapt to the type of demand placed on it
What are the three types of specificity? mechanical, neuromuscular, and metabolic specificity
Mechanical Specificity the weight and movements placed on the body
Neuromuscular Specificity the speed of contractions and exercise selection
Metabolic Specificity the energy demand placed on the body
The principle of progressive overload is training stimulus must exceed current capabilities to elicit optimal physical, physiological, and performance adaptations
Periodization dividing a training program into distinct periods, training different adaptations in each
Undulating Periodization changing the OPT phase or acute variables daily or weekly to train multiple adaptations while still allowing for proper recovery
Intensity exercise level of effort compared to maximal effort; write ten as percentage of 1RM
Volume the amount of physical training performed within a specific period of time
What is the FITTE principle? Frequency Intensity Time Type Enjoyment
Frequency the number of training sessions in a given time frame
Intensity the level of demand that an activity places on the body
Time the length of time an individual is engaged in an activity
Type the type of physical activity being performed
Enjoyment the amount of pleasure derived from a training session
High Volume (low intensity) adaptation provides: increased muscle cross-sectional area improved blood lipid serum profile increased metabolic rate
Low Volume (high intensity) adaptation provides: increased rate of force production increased motor unit recruitment increased motor unit synchronization
Signs of overtraining syndrome: decreased performance fatigue altered hormonal states poor sleeping patterns reproductive disorders decreased immunity loss of appetite mood disturbances