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NETA Personal Training Test

Rapport Positive connection between 2 people
5 strategies to make a good first impression Dress professional, good hygiene, professional greeting, listen, body language
What percentage of a message may be attributed to the elements? 38% of what you say, 7% how you say it, 55% body language
Paraphrasing re-stating in similar words
Reflecting Clarifying in own words
Repeating Using exact words
Summarizing Stating key points. Used to close a conversation or start a new one
Minimal encourages Short phrases to encourage them to talk more...really?
Questioning Gather information using open or closed questions
Pre contemplation "I won't" Individual is not thinking about changing
Contemplation "I may" Individual has intentions of changing within the next 6 months- Weighs pros and cons
Preparation "I will" Individual has intentions of changing within the next month- Joined the health club
Action 'I am" Individual is performing regular activity
Maintenance "I still am" Individual has sustained being physically active for 6 months
Self-efficacy Task specific confidence
4 factors that influence self-efficacy Past performances, mastery experiences, social persuasion, vicarious experiences (watching someone else)
SMART Used for goal setting- Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time bound
Anatomical Position Body is standing erect with feet positioned hip width apart and toes pointing forward. Arms are hanging by side with palms facing forward. Head and eyes looking forward.
Anterior Front of body
Posterior Back of body
Superior A body part located closer to the head and further from the toes relative to another body part
Anterior A body part located further from the head and closer to the toes relative to another body part
Proximal A body part located closer to the midline of the body
Distal A body part located further from the midline of the body
Transverse Plane Divides the body horizontally into upper and lower segments
Sagittal Plane Divides the body into right and left segments
Frontal Plane Divides the body into anterior and posterior segments
Functions of the skeletal system Provides supportive framework for posture, protects vital organs, provides a lever system that works with the muscles for movement, stores essential minerals (phosphorus, calcium), Produces blood cells within the bone marrow
Axial Skeleton 80 bones including the skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column.
Appendicular skeleton 126 bones including the upper and lower extremities, shoulder and pelvic girdles.
How many bones in the vertebral column and the order of regions 33 bones. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
Cervical region Consists of 7 bones which support the skull and neck
Thoracic region Consists of 12 bones that connect to the ribs that provide support for the thorax
Lumbar region Consists of 5 bones and are the largest to support body weight.
Sacrum A single bones consisting of 5 fused vertebrae that transmits body weight to the hip bones
Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae that are functionally insignificant
Synarthrodial joints Held together by tough fibrous connective tissue making an immovable joint such as those found between suture joints of the skull.
Amphiarthrodial joints Connected by fibrocartilaginous tissue such as that found between 2 vertebrae. This type of articulation allows for slightly movable joint.
Diarthrodial joints Freely movable joints that are the most common in the body. They are also called synovial joints because of the synovial fluid that lubricated the joint
Cardiac Muscle Involuntary muscle that lines the walls of the heart. Extremely efficient and fatigue resistant
Smooth Muscle Involuntary muscle that lines the walls of the organs. Moves food through the digestive system
Skeletal Muscle Voluntary muscle that stabilizes and moves the body.
First 2 steps of the sliding filament theory An electrical impulse is delivered by the CNS via a motor neuron to muscle fiber The small heads projecting from the myosin filaments bind with the actin filaments to create actin-myosin cross-bridges
Second 2 steps The A flmts are pulled-power stroke-across the myosin flmts The sliding A causes z-lines to move closer together which shortens sarcomere w/o changing myofilaments length Impulse from CNS subsides allowing A-M to uncouple returning to normal length
Isometric The muscle produces force, but no movement occurs and the muscle doesn't shorten- arms pressing against door frame
Isotonic Muscle shortens and lengthens as force is generated against force.
Concentric phase When the muscle shortens
Eccentric phase When the muscle lengthens
Flexion A movement that decreases the angle at a joint bringing 2 body segments closer together
Extension A movement that increases the angle at a joint bringing 2 body segments further apart and toward ANATOMICAL POSITION
Abduction A movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
Adduction A movement of a body part in the frontal plane toward the midline of the body
Internal rotation A movement around the long axis of a bone toward the body
External rotation A movement around the long axis of a bone away from the body
Horizontal abduction A movement of a body part in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body
Horizontal adduction A movement of a body part in the transverse plane toward the midline of the body
Law of Inertia An object at rest wil stay at rest and an object n motion will stay in motion unless a force acts upon it. EX- the fact that a 50lb dumbbell requires more force to be lifted from the ground that a 15lb dumbbell
Law of acceleration A force applied to an object causes acceleration of the object in the direction of the force proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass. EX- when a 20lb dumbbell is thrown and an 8lb dumbell is thrown, the 20lb will have a slower vel
Law of action-reaction When an object applies a force, there is an equal and opposite reaction applied back. EX- the forces applied to the body upon landing on the ground after a 24 in jump off the plyo box
Rotational inertia The reluctance of an object to rotate around an axis. It is proportional to the mass of an object and the distance to the objects center of gravity. EX- a heavier object further from the center of mass has a higher rotational inertia
Ground reaction force When the ground exerts an equal and opposite force back through the kinetic chain
Angular momentum Generated by the mass of an object, the distance of an object, and the speed at which it is moving. The more angular momentum, the less amount of force required.
Fick Equation Oxygen Consumption (VO2)= Cardiac Output x Oxygen Extraction
Heart Rate HR Number of beats per minute
Normal Resting HR 60-90 bpm
Stroke Volume SV The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart with each beat
Normal Stroke Volume 60-100 milliters per beat
Cardiac Output Q - The volume of blood pumped per minute =HR x SV
Normal Cardiac Output 5 liters of blood per minute
Systolic Blood Pressure The pressure exerted onto the arterial walls during left ventricular contraction- 120 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure The pressure in that arterial vascular system during the relaxing phase of contraction- 80 mmHg
Oxygen Extraction a-vO2 diff- the amount of oxygen removed from the arterial blood and taken to the mitochondria within the skeletal muscle
Oxygen Consumption VO2- the amount of oxygen that is used by the body per minute VO2= Q x a-vO2 diff
Oxygen Debt The elevated consumption of oxygen after the cessation of an exercise session
Oxygen Deficit The difference between the supply of and demand for oxygen during exercise, representing the oxygen that is missing relative that which us needed to support the level of exercise
Tidal volume-#? Amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breathe - 500 mL per breathe
Respiratory rate- #? Number of breathes per minute - 12 breathes per minute
Pulmonary Ventilation-#? Total amount of air inhaled and exhaled per minute - Respiratory rate x TV = 6 liters of air per minute
Phosphagen System The bioenergetic system that supplies the immediate source of ATP during very short term, high intensity activities. 1-10 sec 1 ATP
Anaerobic Glycolosis the bioenergetic system that supplies ATP during short term, high intensity exercise through the breakdown of glycogen. 2-3 min 3 ATP
Aerobic Systems the bioenergetic system that supplies ATP during long duration, low to moderate intensity exercise through the breakdown of carbohydrates. 3+ min 38-126 ATP
What is the limiting factor with regard to the ability to continue deriving ATP from the Phosphogen system? The limiting supply of creatine phosphate
What is the limiting factor with regard to the ability to continue deriving ATP from Anerobic Glycolosis? The accumulation of lactic acid
What are the limiting factors with regard to the ability to continue deriving ATP from Aerobic systems? The depletion of glycogen and subsequent glucose available for the muscle.
Motor Unit The functional component of the neuromuscular system including the neuron, axon, and innervate muscle fibers
Summation The increasing magnitude of stimulation that results from successive electrical impulses sent from the nervous system to the skeletal muscle.
Recruitment The simultaneous activation of additional muscle fibers which contributes to greater force production
All-or-none principle Once the necessary threshold of stimulation has been achieved, every muscle fiber associated with a single motor unit will contract
Size principle Type 1 muscle fibers, having a lower threshold of stimulation, are activated before type 2 muscle fibers
Type I muscle fibers SlowTwitch. Slow Oxidative. Slow speed of contraction, low force production, high resistance to fatigue, large number of mitochondria, produces energy through aerobic metabolism. Low-mod intensity. ENDURANCE
Type IIa muscle fibers Fast Twitch. Fast oxidative glycolytic. Fast speed contraction. Moderate force production, moderate resistance to fatigue, produce energy through both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Speed and strength exercises.
Type IIb muscle fibers Fast Twitch. Fast glycolytic. Fast contraction speed, high force production, low resistance to fatigue, produce energy through anaerobic metabolism. Greatest potential of hyper trophy. Power speed and strength.
How many calories are in a gram of carbs? 4
How many calories are in a gram of protein? 4
How many calories are in a gram of fat? 9
% of daily calories for carbs? 45-65%
% of daily calories for protein? 10-35%
% of daily calories for fat? 20-35%
Simple sugars mono-disacchrides. low nutrient density. honey and corn syrup
Complex carbs polysacchrides. high nutrient density. whole grains, veggies
Essential amino acids 8-10 amino acids that CANNOT be manufactured in the body. Must be eaten!
Nonessential amino acids CAN be manufactured in the body using nitrogen, carbs, and fat.
Complete proteins Foods that contain ALL the essential amino acids. Lean meat, poultry, eggs
Complimentary proteins Do NOT contain all the essential amino acids so they are paired together. Whole wheat toast with peanut butter
Saturated fatty acids contains NO double bonds. Solid at room temperature. BAD. full fat dairy, animal products
Unsaturated fatty acids contains one or more double bond. Liquid at room temperature. Oils, fish, seafood- Omega 3
Vitamin Organic, carbon based, macronutrients essential for the maintenance of normal physiological processes
Water soluble vitamins B complex vitamins, Vitamin C
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A, D, E, K. A duck eats kale.
Mineral Inorganic elements that are obtained from the foods we eat and are stored throughout the body. Regulation of enzyme activity .
Major minerals Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium
Trace minerals Copper, zinc, iodine, selenium
Recommended dietary allowance Establishes the level which meets the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals
Adequate Intake When there is insufficient evidence to establish RDA, an AI is set based on the levels of nutrient needs CONSUMED by healthy adults
Functions of water Regulation of body temperature. Absorption and transportation of nutrients, digestion and elimination of waste, maintenance of blood volume
Exercise associated hypoatremia Excessive amounts of water consumed and the body's water-sodium ratio is severely elevated causing a decrease in plasma sodium concentration
What are 2 over arching messages for the DGA? Maintenance of caloric balance overtime and focus on nutrient dense food
Recommendation for sodium intake. now and 51 and older Less than 2,300 mg a day. 1,500 mg a day
Cholesterol waxy like substance found only in animal foods such as meat, poultry, organ meats, dairy products
Low-density lipoprotein Major carrier in the blood. BAD because they contribute to the accumulation of plaque in the arteries
High-density lipoprotein GOOD cholesterol scavengers working to transport cholesterol and lipids to the liver for metabolism and excretion.
Recommendation for cholesterol Less than 300 mg
Adequate intake recommendation for potassium 4,700 mg a day!
Recommended intake for fiber 25 g for women 38 g for men
Metabolism The biomechanical process that involves the breakdown of macronutrients to provide the energy necessary to sustain life and activity
Calorie A unit of energy. The amount of heat necessary to raise 1 g of water 1 degree C
Positive energy balance When the consumption of calories from food exceeds the total daily living expenditure. WEIGHT GAIN
Negative energy balance When the total daily living expenditure exceeds the calories eaten from food. WEIGHT LOSS
Four factors that influence daily living expenditure Basal metabolic rate (minimum energy needed to sustain basic functions) Resting metabolic rate (rested and fasting state), Thermal effect of food (digestion, absorption of food), Exercise
To prevent weight gain and facilitate modest weight loss, perform _______min of exercise a week _______cal expenditure 150-250 1,200-2,000
For more substantial weight loss and enhanced prevention of weight gain, perform _______ min of exercise a week_______cal expenditure 250-300 more than 2,000
Seven components of the Informed Consent form Explanation of the purpose and procedure, explanation of the risks and potential discomforts, expected benefits and outcomes, responsibilities, confidentiality, questions, freedom of consent
Low risk criteria No diagnose, no signs or symptoms, no more than 1 positive risk factor
Moderate risk criteria no diagnose, no signs or symptoms, 2 or more positive risk factors
High risk criteria Diagnosed disease and one OR more signs and symptoms
Age- positive risk factor Men older than 45 Women older than 55
Family History-positive risk factor Myocardial infarction, pulmonary bypass, or sudden death before the age of 55 in father or first degree male relative or age 65 in mother or other first degree female relative
High Blood pressure-positive risk factor Systolic blood pressure higher that 140mmHg Diastolic blood pressure higher than 90mmHg
High Cholesterol (Dyslipidemia) LDL greater than 130 mg/dL HDL less than 40 mg/dL
Prediabetes Impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose between100 mg/dL and 125. Impaired Glucose tolerance: 2 hour glucose test between 140 and 199 mg/dL
Obesity BMI greater than 30kg/m2 Men waist greater than 102cm (40 in) Women waist greater than 88cm (35 in)
Sedentary lifestyle Not participating in moderate level physical activity for 30 min on 3 days per week for 3 months
HDL negative risk factor HDL greater than 60mg/dL
Normal resting heart rate 60-90 bpm
1 lb equals _____kg .4536
1 in equals _____cm .0254
BMI chart Underweight- Less than 18.5 Normal- 18.5-24.9 Overweight- 25-29.9 Class 1 obese-30-34.9 Class 2 obese- 35-39.9 Class 3 obese- over 40
Plumb line-1 Imaginary vertical line that drops from ear through the center of the shoulder joint, along the lateral midline of the trunk, through the lumbar vertebrae,
Plumb line-2 slightly anterior to the sacroiliac joint, through the greater trochanter of the femur, anterior to the midline of the knee, and slightly anterior to the lateral malleolus of the ankle
Keys to proper alignment during exercise Ear is aligned over the shoulder Scapula are retracted and depressed to position shoulder over hip Neutral position is maintained through lumbar spine by core Knees are soft with patella facing forward Feet hip width apart w/ toes forward
The shortening of the iliopsoas and the erector spinae muscle groups causing an increased lordodic curve of the lumbar spine is known as ________ pelvic tilt Anterior
The shortening of the hamstring muscle group causing a flattening of the lumbar spine is known as an ______ pelvic tilt Posterior
Kyphosis A spinal position characterized by excessive posterior curvature or rounding of the thoracic curve
Lordosis A spinal positioned characterized by excessive anterior curvature or arching of the lumbar spine
Scoliosis A spinal position characterized by a lateral curvature of the spine frequently accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae
Flat-back A spinal posture characterized by flexion of the upper thoracic spine, straightening of the lower thoracic spine, flexion of the lumbar spine and a posterior pelvic tilt.
Sway-back MICHELLE-A spinal posture characterized by a forward head position, rounding of the thoracic spine, displacement of the anterior ribs behind the hips, a posterior pelvic tilt, forward swaying of the pelvis over feet, and hyperextended knees
Reciprocal Inhibition The process where tight, overactive agonist muscles will decrease or inhibit the neurological activation of antagonist muscles resulting in functional weakness
Tight muscles for upper cross syndrome TLSPLS Upper trapezius Levator Scapula Sternocleidomastoid Pectoralis Major and Minor Latissimus dorsi Subscapularis
Weak muscles for upper cross syndrome CDIRST Deep cervical flexors Serratus anterior Rhomboids Posterior deltoid Mid and lower trapezius Infraspinatus and teres major
Tight muscles for lower cross syndrome Iliopsoas Hamstrings Hip adductors Gastrocnemius Soleus Erector Spinae Iliotibial Band
Weak muscles for lower cross syndrome Gluteus Maximus, Medius, and Minimus Quadriceps Tibialis anterior Rectus and transverse abdominis Internal and external obliques
When performing assessments, what is the order of assessment? Resting measurements, biometric measurements (height, weight, BMI, WH), body composition analysis, cardiorespiratory endurance test, dynamic postural assessments, muscular fitness test, flexibility assessments
Skinfolds for men? Chest, abdominals, and thigh
Skinfolds for women Triceps, suprailiac, and thigh
Rockport 1-mile test Walk one mile as fast as possible without running. Immediately take time to assess fitness and heart rate to predict VO2Max
12-Minute Walk/Run test Run or walk as far as possible in 12 minutes. Record total distance in meters. VO2Max and fitness can be estimated by based on distance covered.
Cooper 1.5 mile run Run 1.5 miles as quickly as possible. Record time taken to complete 1.5 miles. VO2Max and endurance can be estimated by time taken.
YMCA step test Set metronome for 96 beats per minute. Have participant step up on 12 inch step for 3 minutes keeping up with metronome. Heart rate is taken immediately
What equation would you use to predict one repetition max? Brzycki equation: Weight lifted / 1.0278 - (.0278 x reps til fatigue)
YMCA bench press endurance test 80lbs for men 35lbs for women Set metronome for 60 bpm count number of reps in one minute
Push up test Push up as many as you can
Partial curl up test Mark off 2 sets of tape both 6 inches long 8 cm apart. Set metronome for 40 bpm (curlups done 1 every 3 seconds for 20/min) Fingers on first set of tape and curls til they reach the second set Continue until fatigue or 75 curl ups
Define MET The unit of measurement used to define the absolute energy expenditure (oxygen consumption) of an activity
One MET is equal to an oxygen consumption of .... 3.5 mL/kg/min
Moderate intensity MET 3.0-5.9
Vigorous intensity MET 6.0 or more
To find METs use the equation- Rate of energy expended/ rate of energy expended at rest. ex- walking on flat surface needs energy expenditure of 17.5 mL/kg/min 17.5/3.5 = 5.0 METs
Cardiorespiratory endurance The ability of the circulatory system and the respiratory system to supply oxygen to the muscles during sustained physical activity
Body composition The relative amount of fat mass and lean mass throughout the body. Expressed by % of body fat
Muscular strength The ability for a muscle of group of muscles to exert maximal force on an external resistance
Muscular endurance The ability for a muscle or group of muscles to perform multiple reps against a submaximal external resistance
Flexability The ability to move a joint through a full, pain free range of motion
Overload The application of a physiological or physical stress greater than that to which the body or targeted body system is normally subjected
Progression As the body adapts and becomes accustomed to a specific level of exercise, the training stimulus must be increased in order to apply sufficient overload
Specificity The training effect is specific to the training stimulus or stress applied to the body. SAID principle-Specific Adaptions to Imposed Demands
Reversibility The adaptions and improvements attained through exercise will be lost in training stimulus is removed for an extended period of time
Variation Strategic and meaningful changes within an exercise program
Periodization The systematic manipulation of acute program variables intended to optimize gains while avoiding overuse, overtraining, and plateaus.
Frequency for CRE 3-5 days per week
Intensity for CRE Moderate to vigorous intensity
Time for CRE 30-60 minutes per day of moderate intensity, 20-60 minutes per day of vigorous intensity, or a combination of both
Type for CRE Exercise that is generaly aerobic in nature and involves the use of large muscle groups in a rhythmic and continuous manner
Karvonen Formula Formula to determine heart rate with heart rate reserve. Begin with Max heart rate (220-age) Calculate HRR (difference between resting heart rate and max heart rate (Max-Rest) That is then multiplied by the intensity level. (HHRx.79) Add RHR back.
Proper warm up Allows gradual metabolic response, such as increased O2 uptake Prevents premature onset of lactic acid accumulation and fatigue Causes gradual increase in muscle temp Increases elasticity in connective tissue and muscle components
Proper cool down Keeps the muscles actively pumping to facilitate venous return of blood to prevent blood pooling in extremities Reduces sudden loss in blood pressure(fainting and lightheadedness) Reduces immediate spasms and cramping May reduce soreness
Benefits of resistance training Mechanical loading increases bone density and decreases osteoporosis Reduces risk of falls Reduces risk of osteoarthritis Preserves functional capacity Improves balance and coordination
Isometric Muscular force is exerted on resistance, but no change or movement is made in muscle length PLANK & WALL SIT
Isotonic Involves both concentric and eccentric phase of muscle action ANY FREE WEIGHT EXERCISE
Closed-Chain exercise Distal end of the working body is fixed and remains in constant contact with immovable surface BARBELL SQUAT & PUSHUPS
Open-chain exercise Distal end is open and movable LEG EXTENSION MACHINE & DUMBBELL BICEP CURL
General Adaption Sydrome stage 1 Alarm Stage- Body's initial response to physical activity. Fatigue and sore "Fight or Flight" release hormones, raises BP, and mobilization of energy substrates to supply demand
GAS stage 2 Resistance stage- Physiological, physical, and psychosocial changes to prepare for the future. Leads to increased strength and performance
GAS stage 3 Exhaustion stage- Extended periods of fatigue, lower performance, lack of motivation, injury. AVOID by proper recovery time
Symptoms of over training syndrome prolonged fatigue, change in apetite, disturbed sleep, increased illness, mood swing, unexplained weight loss
Frequency of Resistance training Each major muscle group 2-3 days a week
Intensity of Resistance training 60-70% for novice to improve strength 80% for experienced to improve strength 40-50% for older individuals to improve strength 50% to improve endurance
Type of resistance training Each muscle group Multi joint exercises Variety of exercises free weight, machines, body weight, etc
Repetitions for resistance training 8-12 to improve strength 10-15 to improve strength in middle aged-older 15-20 to improve endurance
Sets for resistance training 2-4 sets to improve strength and power A single set for older adults 2 sets for endurance
Recovery for resistance training 2-3 minutes between sets 48 hours between sessions
Exercise order for resistance training Large-small multiple joints-single joints high intensity-low intensity rotate upper and lower body
Muscle spindle fibers Sensory receptors located within the skeletal muscle that are sensitive to changes in length and rate of length. When stimulated by a sudden lengthening, muscle spindle fibers will cause a reflexive contraction to prevent injury
Golgi Tendon organs Sensory receptors located in the musculotendinous unit that are sensitive to changes in tension and rate of tension. When they sense tension, they relax
Static stretching Moving muscle into lengthened position to mild discomfort for 15-60 seconds
Dynamic stretching slow, controlled, rhythmic movement Warm up!!
Ballistic Rapid bouncing to lengthen and stretch muscles
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Couples passive stative stretching and muscle activation Contract relax technique.
Self-myofascial release Foam rolling
Frequency of stretching 2-3 days a week to improve ROM
Intensity of stretching Stretch to the point of mild discomfort
Time for stretching Holding static stretches for 10-30 sec (30-60 in older adults) PNF- 2-3 sec at contraction 10-30 seconds at stretch
Repetitions for stretching 2-4 times (60 seconds total)
Strains tendon tears as result of forceful contraction or stretching/ Poor flexibility, muscle imbalances, inadequate warm up
Sprains Ligament damage.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Primary structure stabilizing the knee by providing restraint to anterior movement of the tibia under the femur. Closed kinetic chain resistance exercises
Chondromalacia Patellae Cartilage lining the posterior surface of the patella becomes softened and swollen, progressing to fragmentation and flaking, and eventually erosion of the cartilage down to the bone. Muscular imbalances of the quads and tightness of hamstrings ISOMETRIC
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Runners knee. Pain behind and around the patella that is increased with running and knee flexion. Quad weakness/imbalances, tight lateral, weak hips. QUAD STRENGTHEN, HIP ABDUCTORS HAMSTRING STRETCH
Tendonitis When normally smooth gliding motion of the tendon is impaired. Over use! REST, ICE, NSAIDs
Shoulder Impingement syndrome Overhead motions. When the rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus) and subacromial bursa sac get pinched between the acromion process and the greater tubercle of the humerous.
Plantar Fasciitis The painful inflammatory condition effecting the think fibrous band of connective tissue originating on the bottom surface of the heel bone and extending toward the toes.
Shin Splints Pain through the anterior and medial aspects of the lower leg. Irritation of the deep fasical origin of the medial soleus muscle.
P.R.I.C.E. Protection Rest Ice Compression Elevation
Heat Exhaustion Low blood pressure, elevated heart rate, profuse sweating, slightly elevated core body temperature, pale, goosebumps. Supine position with legs up.
Exertional Heatstroke Hyperthermia (over 104), CNS dysfunction, dry, red, hot skin, dizziness, confusion, impaired coordination, loss of conciousness
Four steps of cadiac chain of survival Early recognition and activation 911 Early administration of CPR Early administration of AED Early arrival of EMS
Myocardial Infarction Coronary heart disease caused by atherlosclerosis Prolonged or intermittent squeezing, pressure in chest, shortness of breathe, dizziness, nasea, cold clammy, blueish skin, dilated pupils
Asthma Chronic inflammatory disease that affects the lining of the airways. Inflammation causes the smooth muscle surrounding the airways to contract which restrict the airflow to the lungs and reduces the delivery of oxygen
Recommendations for athsma Use of short acting broncodialators, prolonged warm up, prolonged cool down, avoid pollen or cold air, swimming may be better.
Osteoarthritis Degenerative joint disease in which the cartilage that covers the ends of the bones deteriorates, causing pain and loss of movement as bone begins to rub against bone.
Recommendations for arthritis 150 min of shorter bouts of exercise progression gradual low impact time of day that it is less severe functional activities
Rheumatoid arthritis Autoimmune disease which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the tissues of a joint. Chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial lining of the joints causing painful swelling, which causes erosion of bone tissue
Diabetes Elevated blood glucose levels-hyperglycemia- that is a result of insufficient insulin produced (type 1) or the inability of the muscle cells to utilize insulin(type 2)
Recommendations for diabetes Cardio!! Glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity within active skeletal muscles are increased during and following activity. 3-7 days no more than 1 day off
When to not perform with diabetes DO NOT PERFORM EXERCISE IF BLOOD SUGAR IS GREATER THAN 250mg/dL and ketones are positive USE CAUTION IF BLOOD SUGAR IS GREATER THAN 300mg/dL and ketones are negative
Hypertension High blood pressure 140/90
Recommendations for hypertension RPA= reduce 5-7mg in SBP&DBP 180/110 needs clearance Antihypertensive medications may impair thermoregulation COOL DOWN AAND RPE scale
Osteoporosis Disease affecting the skeletal system in which low bone mineral density and changes in the microstructure of the bone increases risk of fracture. BMD of 2.5 below the mean value
Recommendations for osteoporosis Weight bearing cardio exercises resistance train 2-3x a week balance training
Recommendations for pregnant women CRE 3-4x week Use RPE scale Avoid supine position Limit repetitive isometric or high intensity exercises
Recommendations for youth Light loads with correct form 1-3 sets of 6-15 reps for strength 1-3 sets of 3-6 reps for power 5-10% increase 60 min of physical activity a day Plyometrics for bmd
Recommendations for older adults 150 min a week Limited weight bearing activities 8-10 major muscle groups for 10-15 reps balance training
Standard of care The manner with which professional services should be delivered in order to provide reasonable assurance that the expected outcome is attained without unnecessary harm to the participant
Negligence Failure to act according to a generally accepted standard of care consistent with the manner in which a reasonable, prudent person would have acted in a similar incident
4 elements that must be demonstrated in order for someone to be found negligent A legal duty owed to the participant A breach of this duty Proximate cause Damages sustained
Liability exposure any situation that increases the risk of injury, a medical emergency, or severity of medical emergency.
Strategies to minimize liability exposure Conduct pre-participation screening, proper evaluation, appropriate exercise intensity, supervise, documentation, proper credentials, safe enviroment
Scope of practice Specific boundaries in which an individual may perform the tasks associated with their profession
Risk Management A proactive administration process that will help minimize liability losses for fitness professionals and the organizations they represent
Soap notes Subjective-pertinent or verbal info from client Objective-measurements obtained, exercises performed, data Assessment- My observations Plan- Expected outcomes
5 Roles of a health professional Coach, instructor, facilitator, leader, role model
5 characteristics of a health professional Empathy, respectfulness, genuineness, life long learner, enthusiastic
Created by: bsg2421