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Nervous System

Chapter 9

TermDefinition
CNS (Central Nervous System) portion of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
acetylcholine chemical neurotransmitter
action potential nerve impulse
adrenergic fiber axon whose terminal releases norepinephrine and epinephrine
afferent neuron carrying or conveying nerve impulses toward the CNS
anesthesia loss of sensation
antidiuretic hormone(ADH) hormone produced in the posterior pituitary gland to regulate the balance of water in the body by accelerating the reabsorption of water
arachnoid matter delicate, weblike middle membrane covering the brain, the meninges
astrocyte a glial cell
autonomic effector tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) division of the human nervous system that regulates involuntary actions
autonomic neuron motor neurons that make up the ANS
axon nerve cell process that transmits impulses away from the cell body
basal nuclei (basal ganglia) any of a group of islands of grey matter located in the base of the cerebrum that are responsible for automatic movements and postures
blood brain barrier (BBB) two-ply wall formed by the wall of a capillary and the surrounding extensions of a glial cell called an astrocyte, functions to prevent harmful chemicals from entering vital brain tissue
catecholamine class of neurotransmitters that includes norepinephrine and epinephrine
cell body the main part of a neuron from which the dendrites and axons extend
cerebellum the second largest part of the human brain that plays an essential role in the production of normal movements
cerebral cortex a thin layer of gray matter made up of neuron dendrites and cell bodies that compose the surface of the cerebrum
cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) flud that fills the subarachnoid space in the brain and spinal cord and in the cerebral ventricles
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) a hemorrhage or cessation of blood flow through cerebral blood vessels resulting in destruction of neurons; commonly called a stroke
cerebrum the largest and uppermost part of the human brain that controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movmements
cholinergic fiber axon whose terminals release acetylchonline
choroid plexus a network of brain capillaries that are involved with the production of cerebrospinal fluid
corpus callosum where the right and left cerebral hemispheres are joined
cranial nerve any of 12 pairs of nerves that attach to the undersurface of the brain and conduct impulses between the brain and structures in the head, neck and thorax
dendrite branching or treelike; a nerve cell process that transmits impulses toward the body
dermatome any of the skin surface areas supplied by a single spinal nerve
diencephalon "between" brain; parts of the brain between the cerebral hemispheres and the mesencephalon or midbrain
dopamine chemical neurotransmitters
dura mater literally "strong or hard mother"; outermost layer of the meninges
effector responding organ
efferent neuron neurons that transmit impulses from the CNS to the periphery
endoneurium the thin wrapping of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each axon in a nerve
endorphin any of a group of chemicals in the CNS that influence pain perception; a natural painkiller
enkephalin peptide chemical in the CNS that acts as a natural painkiller
epineurium a tough fibrous sheath that covers the whole nerve
fascicle small bundle of fibers, as in a small bundle of nerve fibers or muscle fibers
fight-or-flight response the changes produced by increased sympathetic impulses allowing the body to deal with any type of stress
ganglion a region of gray nerve tissue
glia supporting cells of nervous tissue
glioma one of the most common types of brain tumors
gray matter tissue comprising cell bodies and unmyelinated axons and dendrites
gyri ridge
herpes zoster "shingles" viral infection that affects the skin of a single dermatone
hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid "water on the brain"
hypothalamus vital neuroendocrine and autonomic control center beneath the thalamus
interneuron nerve that conducts impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons (central or connecting neuron)
limbic system a collection of various small regions of the brain that act together to produce emotion and emotional response; emotional brain)
lumbar puncture when some cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region of the spinal cord
medulla oblongata the lowest part of the brainstem; an enlarged extension of the spinal cord; the vital centers are located within this area
meninges fluid-containing membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
microglia one type of connective tissue found in the brain and spinal cord
midbrain one of the three parts of the brainstem
motor neuron transmits nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glandular epithelial
multiple sclerosis (MS)` the most common primary disease of the CNS; a myelin disorder
myelin lipoid substance found in the myelin sheath around some nerve fibers
myelin disorder any of several disorders characterized by loss or improper development of the myelin sheath that surrounds many axons of the nervous system
myelinated fiber any of the specialized contractile cells of muscle tissue
nerve collection of nerve fibers
neurilemma nerve sheath
neuroglia supporting cells of nerve tissue (nerve glue)
neurologist physician specializing in the treatment of nervous system disorders
neuron nerve cell, including its processes (axons and dendrites)
neuroscientist scientist specializing in research concerning the structure and function of the nervous system
neurotransmitter chemicals by which neurons communicate
nitric oxide (NO) small gas molecule used as a neurotransmitter or paracrine agent
nodes of Ranvier indentations that are found between adjacent Schwann cells
norepinephrine hormone secreted by adrenal medulla; released by sympathetic nervous system
oligodendrocyte a cell that holds nerve fibers together and produces the myelin sheath around axons in the CNS
paralysis loss of the power of motion, especially voluntary motion
parasympathetic postganglion neuron ANS neuron in which dendrites and cell body are in a parasympathetic ganglion, and axon travels to a variety of visceral effectors
Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) part of the autonomic nervous system, ganglia are connected to the brainstem and the sacral segments of the spinal cord; controls many visceral effectors under normal conditions
parasympathetic preganglion neuron ANS neuron in which dendrites and cell body are located in the gray matter of the brainstem and sacral cord segments; axon terminates in a parasympathetic ganglion
Parkinson's Disease a chronic disease of the nervous system characterized by a set of signs called parkinsonism that results from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine in certain regions of the brain that normally inhibit overstimulation of skeletal muscle
perineurium connective tissue that encircles a bundle of nerve fibers within a nerve
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
pharmacist health-care worker trained to dispense drugs and educate patients in their proper use
pharmacologist scientist specializing in the study of drug actions
pharmacy technician health-care worker trained to dispense drugs under the supervision of a pharmacist
pia mater the vascular innermost covering of the brain and spinal cord
pineal gland endocrine gland located in the third ventricle o the brain and produces melatonin
plexus literally a braid or network, convergence and divergence of pathways
pons the part of the brainstem between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain
postganglionic neuron autonomic neuron that conducts nerve impulses from a ganglion to cardiac or smooth muscle
postsynaptic neuron a neuron situated distal to a synapse
preganglionic neuron autonomic neuron that conducts nerve impulses between the spinal cord and a ganglion
presynaptic neuron a neuron situated proximal to a synapse
psychiatrist physician specializing in mental health
psychologist someone who studies mental processes or treats mental conditions through counseling or related therapies
receptor peripheral beginning of a sensory neuron's dendrite
reflex involuntary action
reflex arc allows an impulse to travel in only one direction
reticular formation located in the medulla where bits of gray and white matter mix intricately
saltatory conduction when a nerve impulse encounters myelin and "jumps" from one node of Ranvier to the next
Schwann Cell large nucleated cell that forms a myelin sheath around peripheral neurons
sensory neuron neuron that transmits impulses to the spinal cord and brain from any of various parts of the body
serotonin a neurotransmitter that belongs to a group of compounds called catecholamines
Shingles viral infection affects the skin of a single dermatone herpes zoster
spinal nerve nerve that connects the spinal cord to peripheral structures such as skin and skeletal muscles
spinal tract any of the white columns of the spinal cord (ascending and descending)
sulci furrow or groove
sympathetic nervous system part of the ANS functioning as an emergency system
synapse junction between adjacent neurons
synaptic cleft the space between a synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron
synaptic know tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron's axon that contains vesicles with neurotransmitters
thalamus located just above the hypothalamus, helps produce sensations and associate sensations with emotions
tract any passageway
ventricle small cavity
white matter nerves covered with white myelin
withdrawal reflex reflex that moves a body part away from an irritating stimulus
Created by: Kdowd713