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SCI/220M Wk 1

Questions/Answers - Ch. 1 - 3

QuestionAnswer
How can food labels help you to make healthy choices? By giving information about standard serving sizes to compare with other foods in the same food group, providing information about nutrients that are commonly low in U.S. diets, and providing information about nutrients that are commonly in excess in U.S. diets.
____________ claims both refer to a relationship between a nutrient, food,food components or dietary supplement and reduced risk of a isease or health related condition, but vary in ___________. Health and structure/function; the amount of evidence supporting the claim
Your family is excited that you are learning about all the different guidelines and recommendations about how to eat and live well, but are a bit confused about how to put it all into action. How do you best articulate how to interrelate/conceptualize these guidelines? The dietary recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines can be met by following MyPlate recommendations.
What allows one to have flexibility in one's diet, provides some healthy guidelines for macronutrient intake, and can be determined without knowing any individual information such as age or physical activity level? AMDR
What is the most accurate DRI for determining a healthy caloric intake? EER
Which guidelines best represent the DRI associated with the average amount of a nutrient needed for good health and with the level that is the highest amount of a nutrient that should be ingested? EAR, UL
The original Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) included protein, iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin because __________. These nutrients were most likely to be deficient in the population.
Which guidelines best represents the evolution of governmental nutrition recommendations to prevent not only deficiency, but the growing incidence of a number of chronic diseases? RDAs, DRIs
What happens during digestion and absorption? Mouth chews food & mixes w/ saliva created by the salivary glands; the pharynx swallows; esophagus moves food to the stomach which mixes the food, secretes acid, and a protein-digesting enzyme; the small intestine completes digestion and absorbs nutrients into blood or lymph; large intestine absorbs water, some vitamins & minerals then passes waste to the anus
Which organs make up the gastrointestinal tract? Mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, liver, pancreas, stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, large intestine, anus
What are mucosal cells? A type of epithelial cell that makes up the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and other body cavities.
How are enzymes important for digestion and absorption? Enzymes are needed to break down different food components.
Why is the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin produced in an inactive form? This enzyme is secreted in an inactive form so that it will not damage the gastric glands that produce it.
What are the three structural features of the small intestine that increase its surface area? Large circular folds, villi, and microvilli
Which absorption mechanism(s) can only move nutrients from an area with a higher concentration of that nutrient to an area with a lower concentration? Osmosis and facilitated diffusion
Which absorption mechanism(s) require(s) a carrier molecule? facilitated diffusion and active transport
Which absorption mechanism(s) require(s) energy? active transport
Why might consuming a prebiotic increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut? Prebiotics serve as a food supply for beneficial bacteria.
What are the functions of the stomach? churn and mix stomach contents, produce mucus, hydrochloric acid, and the inactive form of pepsin, food storage
How does food move through the GI tract? from the esophagus to the sphincter into the stomach and into the small intestines, then large intestines
Define nutrient density. A measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content.
Compare fortified foods and dietary supplements. Fortified foods have nutrients added to them, whereas dietary supplements are a separate product sold to supplement the diet.
Distinguish essential nutrients from phytochemicals. Essential nutrients must be consumed in the diet because they cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to maintain body functions, whereas phytochemicals are substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties.
Identify factors that determine food choices. society, culture, attitudes, emotions, and food avalability
Which has a higher nutrient density: a soda or a glass of milk? glass of milk
Why are foods fortified? to help eliminate nutrient deficiencies in the population
Why is it better to meet your vitamin C needs by eating an orange than by taking a dietary supplement? Oranges contain phytochemicals which are not essential to life but can be beneficial for health.
What factors determine the foods you eat at a family picnic? Tradition and values may dictate what foods we consider appropriate, but individual preferences for taste, smell, appearance, and texture affect which foods we actually consume.
List the six classes of nutrients. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals
List the three functions of nutrients in the body. provide energy, form body structures, and regulate body processes.
Which classes of nutrients provide energy? Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
What three nutrient functions help ensure normal growth, maintenance of body structure and functions, and reproduction? energy, regulation, and structure
Describe the different causes of malnutrition. Undernutrition like dehydration, vitamin deficiency. Overnutrition like obesity, excessive intake of nutrients and calories. Diet-Gene interactions.
Explain ways in which nutrient intake can affect health in both the short term and the long term. Nutrient intake can affect short term health like hydration and vitamin deficiencies, as well as the development of diseases over time.
Discuss how the genes you inherit affect the impact your diet has on your health. genes affect your risk of developing chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes, but their impact is affected by what you eat.
What causes malnutrition? undernutrition, overnutrition, and diet-gene interactions
How can your diet today affect your health 20 years from now? Some nutritional deficiencies may take years to develop like symptoms of scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C, appear after months of deficient intake; osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones become weak and break easily, occurs after years of consuming a calcium-deficient diet.
Why might the diet that optimizes health be different for different people? Each of us inherits a unique combination of genes, which affects our nutritional needs differently
List three reasons it is important to eat a variety of foods. To provide the right number of calories to keep your weight in the desirable range; the proper balance of carbohydrate, protein, and fat; plenty of water; and sufficient but not excessive amounts of vitamins and minerals
Explain why you can sometimes eat foods that are low in nutrient density and still have a healthy diet. Any food can be part of a healthy diet, as long as your diet throughout the day or week provides enough of all the nutrients you need without excesses of any.
Discuss how dietary moderation can reduce the risk of chronic disease. dietary moderation will hep you maintain a healthy weight, therefore preventing some chronic diseases.
Why is variety in a diet important? In nutrition, choosing a variety of foods is important because no single food can provide all the nutrients the body needs for optimal health.
What could you have for lunch to balance a breakfast that provides no vitamin C or A? salad, potatoes, and broccoli
How are obesity and dietary moderation related? Choosing moderately will help you maintain a healthy weight and prevent some of the chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer.
List the steps of the scientific method and give an example of how it is used in nutrition. The scientific method involves making observations of natural events, formulating hypotheses to explain these events, designing and performing experiments to test these hypotheses, and developing theories that explain the observed phenomenon based on the results of many studies
Describe the organization of living things, from atoms to organisms. Atoms linked by chemical bonds form molecules; molecules form the structures that makeup cells. Each cell is bound by a membrane. In multicellular organisms, cells are usually specialized to perform specific functions; Groups of similar cells form tissues, such as muscle.
Name the organ systems that work with the digestive system to deliver nutrients and eliminate wastes. Nervous, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, cardiovascular/circulatory, lymphatic/immune, muscular, skeletal, endocrine, integumentary, digestive.
How are atoms, molecules, and cells related to one another? Atoms form molecules, molecules form structures that makeup cells.
How do the endocrine and nervous systems interact with the digestive system? the endocrine system secretes hormones that help regulate how much we eat and how quickly food and nutrients travel through the digestive system.; nervous system sends nerve signals that help control the passage of food through the digestive tract
Define digestion and absorption. digestion is the process by which food is broken down into components small enough to be absorbed into the body; absorption is the process of taking substances from the gastrointestinal tract into the interior of the body.
Describe the tissue layers that make up the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. External layer of connective tissue, 2 layers of smooth miuscle; connective tissue, mucosa, lumen
Explain the roles of mucus, enzymes, nerves, and hormones in digestion. Mucus moistens, lubricates, and protects the digestive tract; enzymes accelerate the chemical reactions that break down food into units small enough to be absorbed; nerves help control the passage of food through the digestive tract; hormones help prepare different parts of the gut for the arrival of food and thus regulate digestion and the rate at which food moves through the digestive system.
Created by: jdouglas147