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Developmental Nut.1

Developmental Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
What is the most important event in embryonic development? This is process known gastrulation. The reason is that during this process, there is a rearrangement of all of these cells, which does not occur until this process. Things can go wrong during this process.
What are the three levels of the gastrula called and to what does each give rise? The ectoderm, the mesoderm and the endoderm. The ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system and the skin. The mesoderm gives rise from the muscles. The endoderm gives rise to the internal organs.
What else is significant about gastrulation? Up to 1/3 of all embryos fail to properly complete this process. A spontaneous abortion occurs.
What is the significance of the late embryonic period of 2 weeks to 2 months? This is where organ development occurs so there can be defects occurring. For example, neurological defects can occur if mom does not eat enough dark leafy greens or enough folate.
Identify a tragic consequence of nutrient deficiency in development and its cause Spina bifida can occur. It is cause is a deficiency of folate in the pregnant woman.
Identify another hereditary congenital disorder of the fetus that can result in mental retardation and indicate its cause and method of treatment. Down syndrome. The cause is a chromosomal defect.
Why is the laboratory rat especially undesirable as an animal model for human nutritional studies in pregnancy and which animal is best for this? They are undesirable because there are several differences between humans and rats. Rats have multiple fetuses and humans typically don’t. Sheep are the best to test. Their physiology is more similar. The metabolism is more similar.
Which vitamin excess during pregnancy can cause congenital defects? Vitamin A. 10,000 IUs would be acceptable.
Which 3 well-intentioned practices during pregnancy by medical authorities had adverse effects on the fetus and specify these effects? 1)Eat a lot of fish. (Mercury could be toxic). 2)Physicians had reduced amount of weight gain too much. (should be 25-35lbs.) 3)Iron recommendations too high. (Should be 100m/day.) 4)NaCl is needed during pregnancy and restricting salt is dangerous.
What happens to plasma nutrient levels later in pregnancy and what are two opposing viewpoints? Plasma nutrient levels go down because blood volume goes up during pregnancy. That it is normal vs. it being detrimental. When detrimental, must supplement.
The tryptophan load test is one index for vitamin B-6 status. What happens when pregnant women take this? Explain. They all fail. They are all considered deficient in vitamin B-6. Tryptophan blood test you can easily tell whether b6 is adequate – when pregnant women take the test they all fail because they are deficient.
Is strict vegetarianism during pregnancy acceptable during pregnancy from a nutritional perspective? Explain. Veganism is not always looked at as acceptable unless supplementing with vitamin B12. Omega-3's high in DHA will be lacking, Vitamin D, zinc, and vitamin
Sperm and zygote are foreign cells in a woman’s body. How are they protected against attack by the woman’s immune system? They produce sialic acid and that prevents attack by the immune system.
Why is diabetes mellitus, including gestational diabetes, dangerous to the fetus? Because the fetus cannot function with elevated glucose levels in the mother.
What is the worst infectious disease that a fetus can contract? Explain. German measles.It can cause miscarriage, stillbirth or birth defects in unborn babies, such as: hearing loss. brain damage.
Why should exposure to ionizing radiation, especially therapeutic radiation, be avoided during pregnancy? It strips cells of various ions which are necessary for cellular function and result in mutations from cell divisions
Which drugs and herbal remedies should be avoided during pregnancy? All drugs because they interfere with the metabolism.
Which vitamin do pregnant women need? Vitamin D. Require around 5000 IU/day.
What is the main problem with acetaminophen, etc. Tylenol destroys the liver because it is a profound oxidant. Specifically, it destroys glutathione, the most powerful antioxidant the liver produces. NSAIDS and Ibuprofen.
What supplement will help lower gestational hypertension? Potassium
Treatement for preeclampsia Supplementation with Mg, calcium omega-3s, folic acid, vitamins C and E. (IV magnesium if necessary)
What is a gastrula? A gastrula is an embryonic structure that forms by day 10.
Name 10 problems with sugar. 1. no nutrition 2.causes dysbiosis 3.promotes cancer, virus &bact. 4.affects hormones(leptin) 5 addictive 6 proinflam. 7 IR etc. 8 fructose damages liver 9 uses essential nutrients 10 ->obesity ->CVD->IR, etc.
Name 2 fetal developmental issues with iodine deficiency? What contributes to it? 1)intellectual and cognitive disabilities and 2) physical problems. Goitrogens & halogens, including fluoride & bromide (found in flour) interfere with uptake.
What impact does iron deficiency have on the fetus? Iron deficiency increases the risk of premature birth and iron deficiency in the infant - 50 mg/day safe
What are the risks of consuming alcohol during pregnancy? Severely impaired mental and physical development. fetal alcohol syndrome
What are the carbohydrate and protein requirements during pregnancy Carbs increase from 130 to 175 g/day. Protein increases by 25 g/day (about an ounce)
Name 4 affects of maternal high glucose the fetus? What's the treatment? 1)Increased risk of fetal malformations, 2)2-3 fold increase in congenital abnormalities, 3) excessive infants size at birth, 4)development of diabetes later in life. If not resolved with diet, insulin will be necessary.
What risk does smoking pose to the fetus? High risk of poor nutrient intake, excess toxicants to fetus
Name 3 problems stemming from a deficiency in Omega-3s? Impaired fetal growth and development, impaired vision development, and learning ability
Which vitamins are likely to be deficient in a premature infant? Vitamin E and K because they are absorbed mainly in the last trimester.
Name 3 benefits of maternal supplementation during 1st trimester. 1) 2-fold reduction in risk of preterm delivery in low-income, urban women, 2) Improved antioxidant and immune function likely leading to a lower incidence of disease. 3)Reduced risk of non-genetic developmental defects
How can a pregnant woman improve constipation? Consume an additional 30 g/d fiber or take fiber supplements
Created by: pcsnyder89