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Nutrition: Health

What are the three nutrients that provide us with energy? Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins
What percentage of your diet should Carbs make up? 50-60%
What percentage of your diet should Fats make up? 20-30%
What percentage of your diet should protein make up? 10-20%
What is the only fuel our body can use for energy? glucose (blood sugar)
What is glucose converted into if there isn't an immediate need for energy? Glycogen
Where is glycogen stored? liver and muscles
Fiber -Aides in digestion by slowing down the absorption of glucose (avoid blood glucose spike -insoluble fiber is not broken down in the intestines -reduces the risk of cardio vascular disease by binding to cholesterol in the intestines so it can be removed
What are some examples of fiber? peanuts, vegtables, whole grains, some fruits
Glycemic Index (GI) a value representing the speed in which carbohydrates are digested thus spiking glucose (blood sugar) levels.
What are some characteristics of Low GI foods? -higher levels of vitamin and minerals -high in fiber -gradual rise in glucose = long lasting energy
What are some characteristics of High GI foods? -usually processed/enriched foods -low fiber content -rapid spike in glucose= short term energy -enriched refined sugars
What are the three kinds of fats? Unsaturated, Saturated and Trans
Unsaturated fat -fish and plant sources -usually liquid at room temp -increase HDL -Decreases LDL -Helps prevent CVD
What are food that contain a large amount of unsaturated fat? Fish oils (salmon), avocado oil, nut oil and peanut butter
Saturated fats -animal sources -usually a solid at room temp -increases LDL -contributes to CVD
What are some food that contain a large amount of saturated fats? cheese, yogurt, lard/butter, mayonnaise, red meat
Trans fats -unnatural -added hydrogen to change the oil into a preservative -Increased LDL and decreased HDL
Why do we need fats in our diet? -energy storage -builds brain cells -vitamin (A, D, E, and K) storage and absorption -insulation- regulating temperature -hormone levels.
Protein - Amino acids that are building blocks for every cell in your body -Both vegetarian and animal sources
Calories Unit of energy that you get from consuming each type of macronutrient
How many calories do Carbs have per gram? How do you calculate your total calories on a food label? -4 calories per gram - Carbs grams x 4 calories per gram = total calories from carbs
How many calories does protein have per gram? How do you calculate the total calories on a food label? - 4 cal per gram - pro. grams x 4 cal per gram= total calories from proteins
How many calories do fats have per gram? How do you calculate the total calories on a food label? -9 per gram -fat cal x 9 per gram = total calories from fat
What is Anorexia Nervosa? Self starvation and a refusal to maintain a health body weight. (15% or more below a healthy body weight)
What are some symptoms of Anorexia? weight loss, intense fear of gaining weight, refusal to eat, denial of hunger, compulsive behaviors, sensitivity to cold,absent or irregular menstruation, hair loss
How does Anorexia hurt the body? hear liver and kidney damage, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
What is Bulimia Nervosa? Binge eating (usually in secret) and purging behaviors (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, etc.)
What are some symptoms of of Bulimia? preoccupation with food, secretive eating, frequent visits to bathroom after eating,
How does Bulimia hurt the body? esophageal tears, tooth/gum erosion, electrolyte imbalance, dehydration
What is Basal Metabolic Rate? the rate that the body uses energy at rest
What are 5 factors that affect BMR? 1: Age (M decreases with age) 2: Activity level (M increases with exercise) 3: Gender (M tends to be faster for Males) 4: Body Structure ( M increases with muscle mass) 5: Genetics
What are 4 ways to increase you metabolism? 1: Increase muscle mass 2: Eat Breakfast 3: Eat 6 smaller meals throughout the day 4: drink water
What is percent body fat? amount of fat tissue vs. lean muscle mass
What percent body fat is ideal for men? 9-15%
What percent body fat is ideal for women? 14-21%
Created by: ecpearce