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Skeletal System

Medical Terminology Chapter 6

TermDefinition
diaphysis main shaft-like portion of a long bone; hollow cylindrical shape consisting of compact bone
epiphysis located at each end of a long bone; bulblike shape and ample space for muscle attachment
epiphyseal line layer of cartilage separating the diaphysis from the epiphysis; growth plate
periosteum thick white fibrous membrane that covers the surface of the long bone, except for the joint surfaces
articular cartilage think layer of cartilage that covers the ends of long bones and the surfaces of the joints
medullary cavity cavity within the long bone where yellow marrow is found
haversian canals system of small canals containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves that extend length wise through compact bone
cancellous bone spongy bone or trabecular bone; not as dense as compact bone;
trabeculae needlelike bony spicules that give the cancellous bone its spongy look; arranged along lines of stress, adding strenghth; space between contain red bone marrow
red bone marrow blood cell production occurs; more prevalent in infants and children; becomes yellow marrow as one ages
yellow marrow stores fat; not an active sight for blood cell production in adults
osteoblasts immature bone cells
ossification conversion of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage into bone or bony substance
osteoclasts large cells that digest or absorb bony tissue
resorption process of removing old bone tissue or destroying it, so that its components can be absorbed in to circulation
osteocytes mature bone cells
bone markings specific features of individual bones
bone processes projections or outgrowths of bone
bone head a rounded, knoblike end of a long bone; separated from the shaft of the bone by a narrow portion
neck a constricted or narrow section that connects with the head, as in the neck connecting to the head or the neck of the femur
tuberosity an elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone; usually for attachment of muscles or tendons
trochanter large bony process located below the neck of the femur, for attachment of muscles
condyle a knucklelike projection at the end of a bone; usually fits into a fossa of another bone to form a joint
crest a distinct border or ridge; an upper elevated edge, as in the upper part of the hip bone (iliac crest); usually a site for muscle attachment
spine a sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to crest
bone depression concave (indented) areas, or openings, in a bone, help form joints or serve as points of attachment for muscle
sulcus a groove or depression in a bone; a fissure
sinus an opening or hollow space in the bone
fissure a groove or depression in a bone
fossa a hollow or shallow concave depression in a bone
foramen a hole within a bone that allows blood vessels or nerves to pass through
frontal bone forms the forehead (front of the skull) and the upper part of the bony cavities that contain the eyeballs; frontal sinuses are located here
parietal bone moving toward the back of the head, just behind the frontal bones; two bones that form most of the top an the upper sides of the cranium
occipital bone single bone that forms the back of the head and the base of the skull
temporal bone two bones for the lower sides and part of the base of the skull
sphenoid bone a bat-shaped bone located at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bones; part of the base of the eye orbits
ethmoid bone lies just behind the nasal bone; forms the front of the base of the skull, part of the eye orbits, and the nasal cavity
sutures immovable joints of the cranial bones
fontanel; fontanelle a space between bones of an infant's cranium that is covered by a tough membrane
anterior, frontal fontanelle diamond-shaped space between the frontal and parietal bones in infants; closes between 18 and 24 monts
posterior, occipital fontanelle space between the occipital and parietal bones in an infant and is much smaller that the anterior fontanelle; closes within 2 months after birth
Created by: RedEm