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Ch. 5 - Anatomy

Chapter 5 - Anatomy

TermDefinition
Anatomy the study of organs and the systems of the body.
Gross Anatomy the study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye.
Physiology the study of the functions of these organs and systems.
Histology the study of microscopic structures.
Cells the basic units of life. They are made of protoplasm.
Protoplasm a colorless, gel-like substance that contains water, salt, and nutrients obtained from food.
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, and Cell Membrane the three basic parts of a cell.
Nucleus the control center for cell activities; is vital for cell reproduction. Controls cell reproduction, growth, and metabolism.
Cytoplasm the production department of a cell. Organelles perform cell activities, store nutrients, and repair and restore cell.
Cell Membrane the outer surface and enclosing structure of the cell.
1) Adequate food, oxygen, and water 2) Proper temperature 3) The ability to remove waste products the three things cells need to grow and stay healthy.
Mitosis "indirect division"; the process describing how somatic cells reproduce by dividing in half.
Metabolism the chemical process by which cells receive nutrients for cell growth and reproduction. Affected by hereditary factors, health conditions, medicines, exercise, diet, and eating habits.
Anabolism the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. During this process, the body stores food, water, and oxygen.
Catabolism the process of breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones. The release of energy is necessary for specific body function such as muscle movement and digestion.
Epithelial, Muscular, Connective, Liquid, and Nerve the five types of tissues.
Epithelial a type of tissue that protects skin surfaces and internal organs.
Connective a type of tissue that supports, protects, and holds the body together.
Nerve a type of tissue that delivers messages to and from the brain; also coordinates body functions.
Muscular a type of tissue that, when stimulated, contracts to produce motion.
Liquid a type of tissue that carries food, waste products, and hormones.
Organs separate body structures that perform specific functions; made of two or more different types of tissue.
Body System a group of organs that perform one or more vital functions for the body. Organs can belong to multiple systems.
Skeletal System a body system that provides a framework for the body. Consists of 206 bones of different shapes and/or sizes.
Muscular System a body system that moves the body.
Circulatory System the "vascular system"; a body system that circulates blood and lymph throughout the body.
Nervous System a body system and sends and receives messages from the brain.
Digestive System a body system that supplies nutrients to the body.
Excretory System a body system that eliminates waste from the body.
Respiratory System a body system that controls breathing.
Endocrine System a body system that controls growth, health, and reproduction.
Reproductive System a body system that functions in generating new life to perpetuate the species.
Integumentary System a body system that covers protects the entire body.
Osteology the study of bones.
Long, Flat, and Irregular the three types of bones.
Long a type of bone found in the arms and legs.
Flat a type of bone that is plate-shaped; found in the skull, scapula, hips, sternum, ribs, and the patella.
Irregular a type of bone that is uneven in shape and found in the wrist, ankle, and spinal column.
Bone the body's hardest structure; consists of 2/3rds mineral matter and 1/3rd organic matter. Supports body structure, protects internal organs, provides frame for muscles, allows body movement, produces red and white blood cells, and stores calcium.
Cranium made up of the bones of the skull not including the facial bones. Includes 8 bones.
Frontal the cranial bone spanning from the top of the eyes to the top of the head; forms the forehead.
Parietal the cranial bone which includes the crown of the skull and the upper sides of the head.
Occipital the cranial bone making up the back of the skull; forms an indentation above the nape.
Temporal the cranial bone making up either side of the head directly above the ears and below the parietal bones.
Sphenoid the cranial bone behind the eyes and nose; connects all bones of the cranium.
Ethmoid the spongy cranial bone between the eyes that forms part of the nasal cavity.
Facial Skeleton the bones of the skull not including the cranial bones; made up of 14 bones.
Mandible the facial bone that makes up the lower jaw; the largest bone of the facial skeleton.
Maxillae the two facial bones that make up the upper jaw.
Zygomatic malar; the two facial bones that form the upper cheek and bottom of the eye socket. Form the cheekbones.
Lacrimal the smallest two facial bones that form the front of the inner, bottom wall of the eye socket.
Nasal the two facial bones that join to form the bridge of the nose.
Neck Bones the bones that make up the top of the spinal column which connects to the base of the skull; provides structure and movement to the neck and head.
Cervical Vertebrae seven neck bones that form the top half of the spinal column; lightly massaged during facial treatments.
Hyoid the U-shaped neck bone at the base of the tongue that supports the muscles of the tongue. The only bone in the human body not connected to another bone.
Back, Chest, and Shoulder Bones the bones which enclose and protect the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.
Thorax chest; the bony cage made up of spinal bones (thoracic vertebrae), the sternum, and twelve ribs.
Thoracic Vertebrae medical term for the spine.
Clavicle chest bone that runs across chest between shoulders.
Scapula two large, flat shoulder bones that extend from the middle of back upward to the joint attached to the clavicle.
Humerus the largest bone of the upper arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.
Radius the smaller bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
Ulna the bone on the little finger side of the forearm.
Carpals the eight small bones held together by ligaments from the wrist (carpus). Makes up base of hand.
Metacarpals the five long, thin bones that form the palm of the hand.
Phalanges the fourteen bones that form the digits (fingers). The thumb is made up of two, and the other fingers are made up of three.
Organelles small structures which perform most of the cell's activities. They store food for growth as well as repair and restore the cell.
Decolletage the upper chest area.
Nine the number of the fourteen facial bones involved in facial massage.
Olecranon Process the elbow joint.
Myology the study of the structure, function, and diseases of the muscles.
40% the percentage of a human's average body weight which muscles make up.
Muscles fibrous tissues that contract or relax when stimulated by the nervous system. There are more than 500 in the body.
Movement, Attachment, Protection, Shape the four functions of the muscular system.
Anterior in front.
Posterior behind or in the back.
Superioris located above or is larger than.
Inferioris located below or is smaller than.
Levator lifts up.
Depressor draws down or depresses.
Dilator opens, enlarges, or expands.
Striated "voluntary" or "striped" muscles; type of muscle tissue that responds to conscious commands.
Non-striated "involuntary" or "smooth" muscles; the type of muscle tissue that responds automatically to control various body functions such as the internal organs.
Cardiac "heart"; a unique muscle found only in the heart. Functions involuntarily.
Origin the fixed portion of the muscle attached to bone or another fixed muscle.
Skeletal Muscle the part of the muscle attached to bone.
Belly the term applied to the midsection of the muscle between the insertion and origin.
Insertion the portion of the muscle joined to movable attachments: bones, movable muscles, or skin.
Tendons bands of fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bones.
Ligaments dense, strong bands of fibrous tissue that connect the bones to each other, forming joints.
Massage, Electric Current, Light Rays, Heat Rays, Moist Heat, Nerve Impulses, and Chemicals methods that cause stimulation of muscle tissue.
Epicranius "occipito-frontalis"; the broad muscle that covers the scalp. Is formed by two muscles joined by the aponeurosis tendon.
Frontalis the muscle that extends from the forehead to the top of the skull. Raises eyebrows and draws the scalp forward.
Occipitalis the muscle located at the nape of the neck. Draws the scalp back.
Auricularis Anterior muscle located in front of the ear.
Auricularis Superior the muscle located above the ear.
Auricularis Posterior the muscle located behind the ear.
Corrugator the muscle located underneath the eyebrows; draws the eyebrows in and downwards.
Levator Palpebrae Superioris the muscle located above the eyelids; opens the eyelids.
Orbicularis Oculi the muscle that encircles the eye socket; closes the eyelid.
Procerus the muscle located between the eyebrows, across the bridge of the nose. Draws the brows downwards and wrinkles the bridge of the nose.
Oris Orbicularis the muscle that encircles the mouth; contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips. Whistling.
Quadratus Labii Superioris "levator labii superioris"; muscles located above the upper lip; raises both the nostrils and the upper lip. Distaste.
Quadratus Labii Inferioris "depressor labii inferioris"; muscle located below lower lip; pulls lower lip down or to side. Sarcasm.
Mentalis muscles located at tip of chin; pushes lower lip up and wrinkles chin. Doubt.
Risorius muscle located at the corner of the mouth; draws the mouth up and out. Grinning.
Caninus "levator anguli oris"; muscle located above the corners of the mouth; raises the angle of the mouth. Snarling.
Triangularis "depressor anguli"; muscle located below corners of mouth; draws corners of mouth down. Sadness.
Zygomaticus muscles located outside corners of the mouth; draws mouth up and back. Laughing and smiling.
Buccinator muscle located between the jaws and cheek; compresses the cheek. Blowing out air.
Temporalis muscle located above and in front of ear; opens and closes the jaw. Mastication.
Masseter muscle that covers the hinge of the jaw; aids in closing the jaw. Chewing.
Platysma muscle that extends from the tip of the chin to the shoulders and chest; lowers bottom jaw and lip. Sadness.
Sternocleido Mastoideus the muscle that extends along the side of the neck from the ear to the collarbone; moves head from side to side and up and down. "Yes" and "No".
Trapezius the muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper back; muscles draw head back, control shoulder blades and swinging motion of arms.
Latissimus Dorsi the muscle that covers the lower back; draws head back, controls shoulder blades and swinging motion of arms.
Pectoralis Major and Pectoralis Minor muscles that extend across the front of the chest; assists in swinging the arms.
Serratus Anterior muscle located underneath the arm; helps in lifting the arm and moves during breathing.
Deltoid the triangular-shaped muscle that lifts the arm or turns it.
Bicep primary muscle in front of upper arm; raises the forearm, bends the elbow, and turns the palm of the hand down.
Tricep muscle that extends the upper arm; controls forward movement of forearm.
Supinator the muscle that runs parallel to the ulna; turns the palm of the hand up.
Pronator muscle that runs across front of the lower part of the radius and the ulna; turns palm of the hand downward and inward.
Flexor Ulnaris muscle that is located mid-forearm, on inside of arm; bends wrists and closes fingers.
Extensor Radialis muscle that is located mid-forearm, on outside of arm; straightens the fingers and wrists.
Abductor the muscles that separate the fingers.
Adductor the muscles that draw the fingers together.
Opponens the muscles that are located in the palm of the hand; cause the thumb to move toward the fingers. Grasping and making fists.
Cardiovascular "blood vascular system", a part of the circulatory system. Includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. Circulates blood.
Lymph Vascular a part of the circulatory system that circulates lymph through lymph glands, lymph nodes, and vessels.
Heart fist-sized, cone-shaped muscular organ located in the chest cavity. Contracts and relaxes to force blood through the circulatory system.
Pericardium the tough outer membrane which encompasses the heart.
Heart Rate average is 60-100 beats per minute. Regulated by impulses from the SNS and the vagus.
Right Atrium the "right auricle"; deoxygenated blood enters here through the Superior Vena Cava.
Left Atrium the "left auricle"; oxygenated blood enters here through the pulmonary vein.
Right Ventricle the lower right chamber of the heart; deoxygenated blood enters here through the tricuspid valve.
Left Ventricle the lower left chamber of the heart; oxygenated blood enters here through the bicuspid valve.
Blood the sticky, salty fluid that circulates through the body. Brings nourishment and oxygen to all body parts while carrying toxins to the liver and kidneys.
Average amount of blood in adult human body 8-10 pints
Blood Cells made up of red and white corpuscles, platelets, and plasma. Composes the semi-solid part of blood.
Red Blood Cells known as "erythrocytes" or "red corpuscles"; carries oxygen and hemoglobin. Attracts oxygen through oxygenation and releases it while collecting carbon dioxide.
Hemoglobin a protein in red blood cells that attracts oxygen molecules.
Oxygenation the process by which hemoglobin attracts oxygen molecules.
White Blood Cells known as "leucocytes" or "white corpuscles"; protect body by fighting bacteria and other foreign substances. Increases when body experiences infection.
Blood Platelets known as "thrombocytes"; initiates coagulation of the blood when exposed to air or trauma in skin tissue.
Plasma the fluid part of blood in which RBCs, WBCs, and blood platelets are suspended. Composed of 90% water.
Blood Vessels any vessels through which blood circulates in the body. There are three types: arteries, veins, and capillaries.
The three types of blood vessels arteries, veins, and capillaries
Arteries tubular, elastic, thick-walled branching vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body.
Veins tubular, elastic, thin-walled branching vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the capillaries to the heart. Contain cuplike valves to prevent backwards flow. Closer to outer surface of body than arteries.
Capillaries small vessels that take nutrients and oxygen from the arteries to the cells. Also takes waste products from cells to the veins.
Heart Attack an event that causes permanent damage or death to part of the heart muscle.
Cardiac Arrest when the heart stops beating altogether, resulting in imminent cardiac death in the absence of immediate medical attention.
Systemic Circulation "general circulation"; the process of blood traveling from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart.
Superior Vena Cava the vein which transports oxygen-depleted blood into the right auricle.
Tricuspid the valve which transports deoxygenated blood from the right auricle to the right ventricle.
Pulmonary Artery the artery which transports blood from the right ventricle to the lungs to be oxygenated.
Pulmonary Circulation the phase of blood circulation during which blood travels through the pulmonary artery to the lungs to be oxygenated.
Pulmonary Vein the vein which transports newly oxygenated blood to the left auricle.
Bicuspid Valve "mitral valve"; the valve which transports blood from the left auricle to the left ventricle.
Aorta the largest artery in the body; transports blood from the left ventricle to the arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.
Venules small veins that join capillaries to larger veins.
Common Carotid Arteries arteries located on either side of the neck. Splits into an internal carotid artery and an external carotid artery.
Internal Carotid Artery the artery which supplies blood to the brain, eyes, and forehead.
External Carotid Artery the artery which branches into smaller arteries; supplies blood to the skin and the muscles of the head.
Internal and External Jugular the veins which transport blood from the head, face, and neck back to the rest of the body.
Posterior Auricular supplies blood to the scalp above and behind the ears.
Superficial Temporal supplies blood to the sides and top of the head; branches into five smaller arteries that supply blood to the frontal artery, the parietal artery, the middle temporal, the transverse artery, and the anterior auricular.
Frontal Artery the artery which supplies blood to the forehead.
Parietal Artery the artery which supplies blood to the crown and sides of the head.
Middle Temporal supplies blood to the temples.
Transverse Artery the artery which supplies blood to the masseter.
Anterior Auricular supplies blood to the anterior part of the ear.
External Maxillary the "facial artery"; supplies blood to the lower portion of the face including the mouth and nose. Branches into smaller arteries which supply the submental artery, the inferior labial, the angular artery, and the superior labial.
Submental Artery the artery which supplies the chin and lower lip.
Inferior Labial supplies blood to the lower lip.
Angular Artery supplies blood to the sides of the nose.
Superior Labial supplies blood to the upper lip and the septum.
Lymph Vascular System the "lymphatic system"; a part of the circulatory system. Made up of 100 lymph nodes which circulate lymph throughout the body.
Lymph a colorless liquid produced as a by-product of plasma. Delivers nourishment to the capillaries and cells. Filters toxins from the blood. Contains lymphocytes.
Nervous System the system which coordinates and controls the overall operation of the human body by responding to internal and external stimuli.
Neurology the study of the nervous system.
The average weight of the human brain 44 to 48 ounces
Cerebrum the large, rounded structure of the brain that occupies the upper, front part of the cranial cavity. Higher mental functions such as thought, emotion, and memory.
Cerebellum the "little brain" or the "hind brain"; located in the occipital area below the cerebrum. Regulates motor function, muscle movement, and balance.
Pons a prominent band of nerve tissue that connects parts of the brain to the spinal column. Located below the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum.
Medulla Oblongata Located below the pons and connects parts of the brain to the spinal column. Governs respiration, circulation, swallowing, and other body functions. The most vital part of the brain. Controls breathing and heart function.
Central Nervous System, the Peripheral Nervous System, and the Autonomic Nervous System the three subsystems which make up the nervous system.
Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves the primary components of the nervous system.
Central Nervous System the "cerebrospinal nervous system"; composed of the brain and the spinal cord. Controls all voluntary and involuntary body action.
Spinal Cord a cord made of long nerve fibers that span from the base of the brain and extend to the base of the spine. Holds 31 pairs of spinal nerves that branch out to the muscles, internal organs, and the skin.
Peripheral Nervous System a part of the nervous system which consists of sensory and motor nerves. Extends from the brain and spinal cord to the voluntary muscles and the surface of the skin. Carries sensory information to the brain from the ears, eyes, nose, and tongue.
Autonomic Nervous System a part of the central nervous system that controls the respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Governs involuntary body functions: breathing, blinking, sweating, and digesting.
Sympathetic Nervous System and the Parasympathetic Nervous System the two parts of the autonomic nervous system.
Sympathetic Nervous System the part of the autonomic nervous system which accelerates the heart rate, constricts the blood vessels, and raises blood pressure. Responds to the body's physiological status.
Parasympathetic Nervous System a part of the autonomic nervous system that slows the heart rate, dilates the blood vessels, and lowers blood pressure. Responds to the body stabilizing.
Homeostasis a state of balance in the body.
Nerve Cell a "neuron"; possesses a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a membrane. Surrounded by dendrites.
Dendrites branch-like appendages which surround the ends of neurons. Transfers electrical impulses between adjacent neurons.
Axon long fibers which connect synapses.
Synapse the terminal between adjacent dendrites. They relay messages in the form of electrical impulses to neighboring cells. May connect the neuron to muscles, organs, or other neurons.
Reflex Action the interaction of sensory and motor nerves to create an involuntary muscular movement.
Sensory Nerves "afferent nerves"; carry messages to the brain and spinal cord. Provides smell, sight, touch, hearing, and taste. Receptors located in papillary dermis.
Motor Nerves "efferent nerves"; carry messages from the brain to the muscles. Causes voluntary muscular movement.
Sensory-Motor Nerves large nerves which many branches that can serve different sensory and motor functions.
Cranial Nerves the twelve pairs of nerves which originate in the brain. Connect the brain to other parts of the body, especially the face, head, and neck. Classified as sensory, motor, or mixed.
Fifth, Seventh, and Eleventh the nerves which estheticians are primarily interested in.
First the Olfactory nerve; a sensory nerve which provides the sense of smell.
Second the Optic Nerve; a sensory nerve which provides the sense of sight.
Third the Oculomotor Nerve; a motor nerve that allows the eyes to move.
Fourth the Trochlear Nerve; a motor nerve that controls the motion of the eye.
Fifth The Trigeminal or Trifacial Nerve; the chief sensory nerve of the face and the largest of the cranial nerves. Provides sensation to the face, tongue, and teeth. Mastication. Divides into the Ophthalmic, Maxillary, and Mandibular Branches.
Sixth the Abducent Nerve; a motor nerve with controls the motion of the eye.
Seventh the Facial Nerve; the chief motor nerve of the face. Controls the motion of the face, scalp, neck, ear, and sections of the palate and tongue.
Eighth the Acoustic or Auditory Nerve; a sensory nerve which provides hearing.
Ninth the Glossopharyngeal Nerve; a mixed nerve which provides the sense of taste.
Tenth the Vagus Nerve; a mixed nerve which controls the motion and sensation of the ear, pharynx, and the pneumogastric (larynx, heart, lungs, and esophagus).
Eleventh the Accessory Nerve; a mixed nerve that controls the motion of the neck muscles.
Twelfth the Hypoglossal Nerve; a motor nerve that controls the motion of the tongue.
Ophthalmic Branch largest branch of the Trifacial Nerve. Located on the top 1/3rd of the face. Divides into the Supraorbital Nerve, the Supratrochlear Nerve, and the Nasal Nerve.
Supraorbital Nerve a part of the Ophthalmic Branch. Extends to the skin of the upper eyelid, eyebrow, forehead, and scalp.
Supratrochlear Nerve a part of the Opthalmic Branch. Extends to the tip and lower side of the nose.
Maxillary Branch a branch of the Trifacial Nerve. Located in the middle 1/3rd of the face and divides into the Zygomatic Nerve and the Infraorbital Nerve.
Zygomatic Nerve a part of the Maxillary Branch. Extends to the side of the forehead, temple, and upper part of the cheek.
Infraorbital Nerve a part of the Maxillary Branch. Extends to the lower eyelid and the side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.
Mandibular Branch a branch of the Trifacial Nerve. The main nerve branch of the lowest 1/3rd of the face. Devides into the Auriculo Temporal Nerve and the Mental Nerve.
Auriculo Temporal Nerve a part of the Mandibular Branch. Extends to the ear and to the area from the top of the head to the temple.
Mental Nerve a part of the Mandibular Branch. Extends to the lower lip and chin.
Posterior Auricular a branch of the Facial Nerve. Extends to the muscles behind and below the ear.
Temporal Branch a branch of the Facial Nerve. Extends to the muscles of the temple and the sides of the forehead, the eyebrows, the eyelids, and the upper cheek.
Zygomatic Branch a branch of the Facial Nerve. Extends to the upper muscles of the cheek.
Buccal Branch a branch of the Facial Nerve. Extends to the muscles of the mouth.
Marginal Mandibular a branch of the Facial Nerve. Extends to the muscles of the chin and the lower lip.
Cervical Branch a branch of the Facial Nerve. Extends to the muscles on the side of the neck.
Greater Occipital a cervical nerve which extends up the back of the scalp to the top of the head.
Lesser Occipital a cervical nerve which extends to the muscles at the back of the skull.
Greater Auricular a cervical nerve which extends into the side of the neck and the external ear.
Cervical Cutaneous a cervical nerve which extends into the side and front of the neck to the breastbone.
Ulnar Nerve a mixed nerve of the arm. Extends down the little finger side of the arm into the palm of the hand.
Radial Nerve a mixed nerve of the arm. Extends down the thumb side of the arm into the back of the hand.
Median Nerve a mixed nerve of the arm. Extends down the mid-forearm into the hand.
Digital Nerve a mixed nerve of the arm. Extends into the fingers.
Created by: helpmelisa