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Intro./Epidemiology

TermDefinitionundefinedundefinedundefined
Public Health Organized Community efforts to ensure conditions in which people can be healthy. Activities that Society undertakes to prevent, indentify, and counter threats to seethe health of the public.
Health A state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease & infirmity.
Infectious Diseases A disease caused by a microorganism that enters the body and grow & multiples there.
Community A specific group of people, often living in a defined geographical area, who share common culture, values, and norms and are arranged in a social structure according to relationships the community has developed over a period of time.
Substance Abuse The problematic consumption or illicit use of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and drugs, including misuse of prescription drugs.
Assessment Constitutes the diagnostic function, in which a public health agency collects, assembles, analyzes, and make available information on the health of the population.
Policy Development Involves the use of scientific knowledge to develop a strategic approach to improving the community's health.
Assurance The responsibility of assuring that that the services needed for the protection of Public Health in the community are available and accessible to everyone.
Life Expectancy # of additional years of life expected at a specified point in time.
Health Promotion Any planned combination of educational, political, regulatory, and organizational supports for actions and conditions for living conducive to the health individuals, group, or communities.
Epidemiology The study of populations to seek the causes of health & disease; the study of the distribution & determinants of disease frequency in human populations.
Statistics A scientific discipline or method, a way of gathering and analyzing data to extract information, seek causation, and calculating probabilities.
Effectiveness The improvement in health outcome that a strategy can produce in typical community-based settings. Also, the degree to which objectives are achieved.
Biomedical Sciences Study of biological basis of human health and disease, including genetics, immunology, infectious disease, chronic disease, and molecular approaches to treatment.
Risk Factors A characteristics that has been demonstrated statistically to increase a person's chance of developing a disease or being injured.
Interventions A program or policy designed to have an impact on a health problems.
Health Outcomes Results of healthcare impact on a health problems. (Interventions)
Disability Reduction of a person's capacity to function in society.
Virus A very small pathogen that is not capable of independent metabolism and can reproduce only inside living cells.
Epidemic an increase in the frequency of a disease above the usual and expected rate.
Vital Statistics Systemically statistics of life, health, disease, and death.
Notifiable Diseases/Reportable Diseases infectious diseases that spread can be prevented if the appropriate actions are taken.
Birth Defects An abnormally in structure , function, or body metabolism that is present at birth.
Chronic Diseases A disease that is marked by long duration or frequent recurrence, usually incurable but not immediately fatal.
Endemic Level The background level in a population due to a prevalence of a disease.
Incubation Period Time between infection of an individual by a pathogen & the manifestation of the disease it causes.
Control Group A group of individuals used by an experimenter to as a standard for comparison--to see the effect of changing one or more variables in an experimental group.
Immune System The body's nature defense system, which works to eliminate pathogens.
Incidence The rate of new cases of disease in a Define population over Defined period of time.
Probability A calculation of what may be expected, based on what has happened in the past under similar conditions.
Prevalence The total number of cases existing in a Define population at a specific rate.
Mortality Rates A measure of frequency for diseases that are usually fatal; Incidence of Deaths / year(unit of time).
Epidemic Curves A plot of time trends in the occurrence of a disease or other health-related event for a defined population and time period.
Associations the relationship between two or more events or variables.
Placebo An inactive substance similar to appearance to the drugged or vaccine being tested; A supposedly ineffective pill or agent use in a control group to gauge the effect of an actual treatment and another group.
Randomized Division of a sample into two or more comparable groups by some random method that eliminates biased selection.
Double-blind Both the patient and the doctor are blind as to weather the patient is receiving a drug or a placebo in a clinical trial.
Experimental Group The treated group in a study, in contrast to an untreated or more conventionally treated control group.
Interventions Study Impact of some intervention on one group or subjects is compared with the effect of a placebo or conventional therapy on a control group.
Cohort Study A study of group of people, or cohort, followed over time to see how some disease or disease develop.
Relative Risk Comparison of two morbidity or mortality rates using a calculations of the ratios of one to the other.
Case-Control Study An epidemiologic study that compares individuals affected by disease with a comparable group of persons who do not have the disease to seek possible causes or associations.
Random Variation
Confounding Variables A factor or explanation other than the one being studied that may affect a result or a conclusion.
Bias The influence or irrelevant or even spurious factors or associations--confounding variables--on a result or conclusion.
Dose-Response Relationship Is between exposure and risk of disease as evidence supporting exposure as a cause of the disease.
Stroke Loss of blood flow to part of the brain caused by a blood vessel bursting or becoming clogged by a blood clot or some other particle.
Parasites An organism that lives off host(organism) but does not contribute to the welfare of the host.
Influenza A infectious disease caused by a virus that mutates frequently, causing new strains to spread around the world regularly. Vaccines are effective but must be changed each year.
Vectors An animal or insect that transmits a pathogen to a human host.
Aerosols A suspension or liquid particles in the air; many infectious disease of the respiratory system are transmitted by pathogen-containing or aersols released when a infected person coughs or sneezes.
Pathogen A microorganism that causes illness.
Reservoir A place where a pathogen lives & multiples before invading a non-infected person.
Immunizaton Which stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the pathogen and to attack it during any future exposure.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) In the early 1980s; The most severe phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People affected with HIV are said to have AIDS when they get certain opportunistic infections or when their T4 cell count drop below 200.
Outbreak A sudden Increase in the incidence of a disease.
Retrovirus A virus that uses RNA as its genetic material instead of the more usual DNA.
Opportunistic Infections Infections that take advantage of the opportunity offered when a person's immune system has been weakened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Antibody A protein produced by cells of the immune system that react specifically with invading antigens.
Injection Drug Use The use of a needle and syringe to inject illicit drugs.
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) / (ART) A treatment of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using anti-HIV drugs.
Bacteria A large domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
Antibiotic Resistance The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to resist the effects of an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive.
Multidrug Resistance (MDR) Antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) A program in which a trained health care worker or other designated individual is (excluding a family member) provides that prescribed tuberculosis medications and watches the patient swallow every dose.
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB) A form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to some of the most effective anti-TB drugs.
Prions An infectious agent composed entirely of protein that causes rare neurodegenerative disease such as "mad cow".
Emerging Infectious Diseases Infectious disease whose incidence in humans has increased within the past few decades or threatens to increase in the near future.
Created by: Jyla Jackson