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Functions of Digestive System -ingest food -break down food into nutrient molecules -absorb molecules into the bloodstream -rid the body of indigestible remains
Alimentary Canal -continuous muscular digestive tube winding throughout the body -digests and absorbs food particles -contains the following organs: mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small and large intestines
Accessory Digestive Organs -teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas
Digestive Process (6 steps) 1. Ingestion 2. Propulsion 3. Mechanical digestion 4. Chemical digestion 5. Absorption 6. Defecation
Gastric mucosa mucous membrane layer of the stomach which contains the glands and the gastric pits. In humans it is about 1 mm thick and its surface is smooth, soft, and velvety. It consists of simple columnar epithelium, lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosae
Gastric submocosa Surrounding the mucosa is the submucosa layer of the stomach. The submucosa is made up of various connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves. Connective tissues support the tissues of the mucosa and connect it to the muscularis layer
Muscularis with a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae separating it from the submucosa beneath/ The muscularis externa lies beneath the submucosa/smooth muscle; contractions controlled by submucosal plexus
Main functions of Salivary Glands -produces and secretes saliva - cleanses mouth -dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted -moistens food, compacting it into a bolus -begins the chemical breakdown of food *salivary amylase :starch
Composition of Saliva -87-99.5% water -pH 6.75-7.0 -Sodium,potassium,chloride,phosphate, and bicarbonate -Mucin -Salivary Amylase
Starch Digestion begins in mouth
Features and Functions of the Stomach -allows food to mix with gastric juice to produce chyme -Greater and lesser curvatures:connected to greater and lesser omentums -Rugae folds: longitudinal folds in stomach wall/mucous bw folds -muscle layers arranged circularly,longitudinally,obliquely
Simple columnar epithelium contains gastric pits that secrete gastric juices
Goblet cells secrete mucus that coats stomach and prevent it from being digested itself
Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid (converts pepsinogen into pepsin) and intrinsic factor (necessary for absorption of vitamin B12)
Chief cells secrete pepsinogen which is converted to pepsin to aid in protein digestion
Enteroendocrine cells release hormones such as: histamine, serotonin, gastrin, endorphins, and somatostatin
Features and Functions of the Small Intestine -receives chyme from stomach; performs majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients
Regions of Small Intestines Duodenum:upper region receiving chyme from stomach & digestive enzymes from pancreas & bile from liver & gallbladder jejunum/Ileum:lower regions where absorption occurs Plicae circulares:permanent folds in mucosa & submocosa that slow movement of chyme
Villi fingerlike projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine/increased surface area will enable more nutrient to tissue contact for maximum absorption
Microvilli tiny projection on the plasma membranes of columnar cells that appear fuzzy (i.e. brush border cells)/produce enzymes that further break down nutrients
Microscopic Anatomy of Small Intestine (villi and microvilli) Lactase breaks down lactose Sucrase breaks down sucrose Aminopeptidase breaks down proteins into amino acids
Secretin released by enteroendocrine cells when acidic chyme enters SI; causes release of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juices
Somatostatin slows gastric motility and emptying and inhibits production of gastric secretions
Cholecystokinin (CCK) ************************* released when fatty, protein-rich chyme enters SI; causes release of enzyme-rich pancreatic juices and bile
Brush border enzymes process long peptides, nucleic acids, and sugars into smaller ones
Functions of Liver************ -largest internal organ -filters and processes nutrient-rich blood of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids from intestine -production and regulation of cholesterol -production of bile which emulsifies fats -removes drugs and hormones from circulation
Regulation of Bile Production -bile exists custic duct upon stimulation -CCK released when acidic, fatty chyme enters intestines -causes bladder contraction,pancreatic juice secretion,relaxation of hepatopancreatic sphincter
Features and Functions of the Large Intestine -reabsorption of remaining water and electrolytes -production and absorption of Vitamins B & K -Elimination of feces - diameter is only 7cm but is larger than that of the small intestine
Peptic Ulcers -gasteric and duodenal caused by Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDS, HCl hypersecretion
Cirrhosis scarred liver due to chronic inflammation
Hepatitis liver inflammation: viral, cancer, alcohol
Biliary calculi gall stones- crystals of cholesterol in bile
Borborygmus rumbling noise caused by gas through intestines
Cholecustitis inflammation of gall bladder
Colitis inflammation of colon
Dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
Enteritis inflammation of the intestines flatulance/eructation
Deglutition act of swallowing
Peristalsis the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
Created by: kthomas96