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Body Sys2-NervPath

Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
Alzheimer’s disease a disease of the brain characterized by progressive impairment of memory and other brain functions such as orientation and judgment
CVA abbreviation for cerebrovascular accident
cerebrovascular accident also known as a CVA or stroke, it is an acute loss of brain function due to interruption of blood flow to a portion of the brain
meningitis inflammation of the meninges, which are the protective tissues covering the brain and spinal cord, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection
epilepsy any of a number of conditions characterized by episodes of disturbed electrical activity in the brain, resulting in a variety of possible signs, including loss of consciousness and uncoordinated shaking movements
Bell’s palsy a disease of unknown cause characterized by the rapid onset of facial paralysis, which is usually temporary and limited to one side of the face
carpal tunnel syndrome The wrist consists of small passageway on the palmar side that permits the passage of tendons and a nerve.swelling in the carpal tunnel that compresses the nerve, causing symptoms in the hand such as pain, numbness, and weakness in the thumb, index, and
Guillain-Barré syndrome an autoimmune disease in which one’s own immune system attacks the insulation covering the nerves in the peripheral nervous system, causing paralysis
sciatica a set of symptoms including pain, numbness, and weakness in a leg, hip, and/or lower back caused by compression of the main nerve supplying the leg or one of its spinal roots
transient ischemic attack an acute temporary (transient) loss of brain function due to interruption of blood flow to a portion of the brain
quadriplegia paralysis and loss of sensation in the torso and all four limbs, typically caused by spinal cord injury
paralysis the loss of function in one or more muscles, resulting in an inability to move the affected part of the body
paraplegia paralysis and loss of sensation in the lower part of the body, including the legs, typically caused by spinal cord injury
TIA abbreviation for transient ischemic attack
Parkinson’s disease a degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by movement disorders, including tremor, slow movement, rigidity, and instability, as well as disorders of mood, thought, and judgment
migraine headache a disorder characterized by recurrent severe, throbbing, one-sided headaches, often associated with nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light
poliomyelitis an infectious viral disease that can affect the spinal cord, resulting in often permanent paralysis
DNA is the chemical that encodes the genetic instructions for all life forms
genetic testing a diagnostic test in which a person’s DNA is examined to detect abnormalities
amniocentesis a diagnostic procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from the uterus of a pregnant woman to perform genetic and other testing to identify potential problems with the fetus
arteriography a diagnostic procedure used to visualize blood flow within an artery to diagnose problems such as blockages or ruptures
electroencephalography a diagnostic procedure in which the electrical activity of the brain is recorded to assist with the diagnosis of a condition such as epilepsy
reflex a quick shortening of a muscle caused by any sudden stretch placed on the muscle
spinal tap a diagnostic procedure in which a sample of spinal fluid—a protective fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord—is withdrawn with a needle for analysis
brain scan a diagnostic image of the brain made using one of a variety of available technologies
magnetic resonance imaging a type of medical imaging that uses strong magnetic forces to generate signals a computer can assemble into a 2-D or 3-D image of a body structure
EEG abbreviation for electroencephalogram
MRI abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging
polysomnography a diagnostic test in which a variety of data, including EEG data, is gathered while a person sleeps to diagnose sleep disorders
positron emission tomography a type of medical imaging that uses a harmless radioactive substance, injected into the bloodstream, to generate 3-D images for diagnostic purposes
craniotomy a surgical procedure involving the cutting open of the skull bone to access and operate on deeper structures such as the brain
discectomy the surgical removal of a portion of an intervertebral disc, which is a flexible tissue found between vertebrae that can bulge or rupture, compressing nearby nerves and causing pain
laminectomy the removal of a portion of a vertebra called the lamina, performed for a variety of possible reasons, for example to relieve pressure on spinal nerve roots
nerve release the surgical freeing of a compressed nerve, for example in carpal tunnel release surgery to treat carpal tunnel syndrome
spinal fusion the surgical joining of two or more adjacent vertebrae to treat spinal deformities or abnormal spinal mobility that is causing pain
antibiotic a drug that is able to kill bacteria or halt its growth
aspirin a drug with anti-inflammatory and blood-thinning effects used for a variety of purposes, including reducing pain and fever, as well as preventing blood clots
blood thinner a drug that reduces the tendency of blood to form clots
thiamine a water-soluble B vitamin that, when deficient, can lead to a variety of neurological problems
cholinesterase inhibitor a drug commonly used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer’s and other diseases, it prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine, a signaling molecule
levodopa a drug commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease, it works by increasing levels of dopamine, a signaling molecule
phenytoin a drug commonly used to treat epilepsy, it works by stabilizing electrical activity in the brain
ergotamine a drug commonly used to treat migraines, it acts by causing dilated (enlarged) blood vessels to constrict (become smaller)
triptans a class of drugs commonly used to treat migraines, they work by causing dilated (enlarged) blood vessels to constrict (become smaller)
Created by: rleroux