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Body Sys1 - Digestiv

Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
gastrointestinal (GI) tract main human digestive tract that runs throughout the body (also known as the alimentary canal or gut)
alimentary canal main human digestive tract that runs throughout the body, also known as the gastrointestinal tract
accessory digestive organs components of the digestive system supporting the alimentary canal that runs throughout the body
peptic pertaining to digestion
periodontist specialist in the tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth
teeth bone structures that assist with the mechanical breakdown of food
tongue organ that helps move food into the digestive tract
salivary glands glands that produce saliva secreted to begin food breakdown
esophagus digestive organ that transports food to the stomach
stomach organ that begins the breakdown of food by mixing it with digestive juices
small intestine digestive organ where most nutrient absorption takes place
pancreas organ that secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine
liver organ that produces bile secreted for fat digestion
gallbladder digestive organ that stores bile for release into the small intestine
large intestine digestive organ that absorbs water and prepares waste for elimination from the body
anus organ that controls human solid waste excretion
gastroesophageal sphincter ring of muscle between the esophagus and the stomach
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle between the stomach and the small intestine that controls emptying of the stomach
gastrin hormone released when partially digested food enters the stomach
serotonin hormone released by stomach mucosal cells to encourage smooth muscle contraction
bolus compact, rounded mass of food particles
chyme consumed food churned and mixed into a creamy substance by the digestive system
pancreatic juices liquid secreted by the pancreas to break down various food products in the small intestine
bile yellowish-green alkaline solution that helps break down fat
duodenum top section of the small intestine where bile from the liver enters
gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) duodenum of the small intestine in response to the presence of glucose, fatty acids, and protein particles
jejunum midsection of the small intestine
ileum bottom section of the small intestine
ingestion food intake through the mouth and into the digestive tract
mechanical digestion the chewing, mixing, and churning of food materials in the human body, beginning in the mouth (via mashing with the tongue) and continuing in the stomach
chemical digestion the breakdown of food particles into chemical building blocks by enzymes in the alimentary canal
absorption assimilation of digested food products into the blood or lymph, mainly in the small intestine
active transport the use of energy by absorptive cells to carry nutrients from one side of the membrane to the other, where they are deposited into capillaries
propulsion movement of food through the alimentary canal through alternating waves of smooth muscle contractions
peristalsis alternating waves of smooth muscle contractions
defecation the process of eliminating indigestible substances from the body
gastroenteritis inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines
colitis inflammation of the colon
acid reflux the condition in which the acidic contents of the stomach bubble up slightly into the esophagus, causing a burning sensation
heartburn a condition in which a person feels burning in the chest
Created by: rleroux