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BodySys1-Muscuskel

Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
musculoskeletal system the body system that consists of all the components needed for movement, including muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bones, and articulations
skeletal system the body system that consists mainly of bones
nervous system the body system that includes the brain, nerves, and neurons
brain the central hub of the nervous system that helps the body move
nerves the specialized cells of the nervous system that transmit electrical signals back and forth between the brain and the rest of the body
spinal cord the bundle of nerves that runs through the back and connects the brain to the rest of the body
bone marrow a soft, spongy tissue inside many bones that works like a factory for blood cells
red bone marrow bone marrow consisting of cells that produce blood cells
yellow bone marrow bone marrow consisting of fat cells
calcium a nutrient that the body uses to create strong, healthy bones
platelets blood cells that help blood to clot so that cuts, scrapes, and other injuries can heal effectively
red blood cells blood cells that carry oxygen and other gases around the body
white blood cells blood cells that help fight infections in the body
stem cells immature cells that can go on to become other cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets
long bone a variety of bone characterized by a narrow, hollow shaft filled with red and yellow bone marrow
short bone a variety of bone characterized by a cube-like structure having similar length, width, and height
irregular bone a variety of bone that cannot be characterized as being a long, short, or flat bone
spongy bone bone tissue that forms the soft interior of a bone and consists of cells that are in a honeycomb pattern with spaces for bone marrow in between
compact bone bone tissue that forms the hard shell outside of a bone and consists of cells that are organized in smooth columns that give the bones strength
flat bone a variety of bone characterized by its flat shape and three-tiered composition of compact and spongy bone
skull the bone that makes up the top and back of the head and protects the brain
mandible the irregular bone located in the jaw; also called the jawbone; functions especially to hold the teeth and allow the jaw to move for talking and chewing
sternum the flat bone that connects the two sides of the rib cage; also called the breastbone
vertebrae irregular bones that protect the spinal cord and form the spinal column
pelvis the flat bone that forms the bottom of the torso and the hip joints
femur the scientific name for the long bone located in the thigh; also called the thighbone
carpals the short bones that form the wrists
tarsals the short bones located inside the feet and ankles
cartilage a tough, flexible tissue often found at the ends of bones
ligaments flexible, ropelike structures that keep joints stable during movement
tendons tissues that connect muscle to bone
Achilles tendon attaches the lower leg muscle to the heel at the back of the foot
joint the place where two bones meet, allowing for movement in the body
fibrous joints fixed joints held tightly together by ligaments
synovial joint a highly moveable and flexible joint lubricated by a special fluid called synovial fluid
joint dislocation an abnormal separation in a joint
arthritis inflammation of a joint
sprain an injury to the ligaments of a joint
strain an abnormally stretched or torn tendon or muscle
contraction the shortening of muscles, which moves bones
elasticity the property of being flexible and able to be stretched
stationary does not allow for movement, such as the joints between the large bones that make up the skull
extension the act of bending a joint such that the angle formed by the joint’s bones increases
flexion the act of bending a joint such that the angle formed by the joint’s bones decreases
rotation the act of turning a joint without flexion or extension
Created by: rleroux