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Anat Phis Phys Terms

Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
atoms are the building blocks of molecules
subatomic particles are particles that are smaller than the atom, such as protons, neutrons, and electrons.
electron is a negatively charged subatomic particle.
neutron is a subatomic particle that is electrically neutral
proton is a positively charged subatomic particle, the number of which determine the type of element the atom is.
molecule is two or more atoms joined together by sharing electrons.
biomolecules are molecules that make up living tissue, mostly made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins
carbohydrate is a biological dietary compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that provides energy for the body
lipids are hydrophobic molecules that store energy and act as structural modules of cell membranes.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) transmits the information encoded in DNA to other organelles.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) encodes the genetic material of the cell.
chromatin is a combination of DNA and proteins that come together to make up chromosomes before cell division.
Nucleic acid is the molecular unit of polymers, such as DNA and RNA, that transmits genetic information.
physiology is the branch of biology that deals with the functioning of living organisms
neurophysiology is the study of the function of the nervous system
receptor is a molecule that receives and transmits a signal.
effector is a muscle, organ, or gland that responds to stimulus on a nerve impulse.
membrane transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane barrier.
osmosis is the tendency of molecules to diffuse across a membrane, causing equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane
diffusion is the passive movement of different types of molecules that achieves an equal concentration after being randomly distributed
hydrophilic describes water-loving or water-soluble molecules, such as proteins or carbohydrates, that form hydrogen bonds with water.
hydrophobic describes water-hating or water-insoluble molecules, such as fats and lipids, that cannot form hydrogen bonds
homeostasis is the ability or tendency of an organism to stabilize its internal environment
homeostatic imbalance is a disturbance in equilibrium due to a disruption in the external environment.
homeostatic regulation is the process that maintains physiological equilibrium that is controlled through the nervous and endocrine systems.
negative feedback is a response in the opposite direction of a disruption that can support homeostasis.
positive feedback is the amplification and stimulation of a response to an external signal.
cell is the structural and functional unit of living organisms; it is membrane-bound and self-replicating.
organelle is a membrane-bound structure in the cell, such as a mitochondrion, a lysosome, or the nucleus, that performs a specific function.
nucleus is the organelle that contains the cell's genetic material
nucleoli are structures within the nucleus of a cell where ribosomes are created
nuclear envelope is a double-layer membrane surrounding the contents of the nucleus.
cytoplasm is fluid material that gives support to the cell and can be found between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
mitochondrion is the organelle that processes fats and carbohydrates to release energy
lysosomes are organelles that break down waste material in the cell.
peroxisomes are organelles that break down cell components and protect cells from toxic materials
plasma membrane is the outer envelope of the cell that acts as a barrier to the external environment, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and waste to leave the cell
ribosomes are molecular machines that decode RNA into proteins built from amino acids
rough endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that works with ribosomes to support protein assembly and transports proteins to other sites in the cell.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that helps fold, modify, and transport new proteins to other sites in the cell.
Golgi apparatus is an organelle that processes proteins to export them from the cell or to release them into parts of the body
Created by: rleroux