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DHO Chapter 14

Infection Control

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) A disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Aerobic Chemical reactions that require the presence of oxygen
Airborne Precautions procedures used to prevent the spread of airborne pathogens
Aneaerobic oxygen is NOT required
Antisepsis Removal of pathogens from living tissue
Autoclave instrument for sterilization by means moist heat under pressure
Bacteria one-celled microorganisms, some of which are beneficial and some of which cause disease
Bioterrorism the use of biological and chemical weapons in terrorist attacks
Causative Agent pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus
Cavitation The cleaning process employed in an ultrasonic unit; bubbles explode to drive cleaning solution onto article being cleaned
Chain of Infection factors that lead to the transmission or spread of disease
Chemical Disenfection destroys pathogenic organs
Clean free from dirt or impurities
Communicable Disease a disease that can be communicated from one person to another
Contact Precautions practices used to prevent spread of disease by direct or indirect contact
Contamination the act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance
Disinfection Process used to destroy microorganisms; destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores
Droplet Precautions used when the disease-causing microorganism does not stay suspended in the air and travels only short distances after being expelled.
Endogenous derived or originating internally
Epidemic outbreak of a rapidly spreading disease
Exogenous derived or originating externally
formites any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying ingectious organisms (such as germs or parasites)
Fungi group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter
Helminths parasitic worms
Hepatitis B inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
Hepatitis C inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted by exposure to infected blood; this strain is rarely contracted sexually
Microorganism any organism of microscopic size
Mode Of Transmission way that the causative agent can be transmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live
Non Pathogens do not cause diseases
Nosocomial hospital acquired infections
Opportunistic infections that occur when the body's defenses are weak
Pandemic epidemic over a wide geographical area
Pathogens Microbes that cause disease
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Those items of protection worn to minimize exposure to hazards; those items worn by the embalmer to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids.
Portal of Entry a pathway by which the caustive agent enters the host
Portal of exit a way for the causative agent to be released from the reservoir
Protective (reverse) Isolation Refers to methods used to protect certain patients from organisms present in the environment.
Protozoa These are one-celled animal-like organisms often found in decayed materials animal or bird feces, insect bites and contaminated water.
Resrvoir An area where bacateria can live.
Rickettsiae Parasitic microorganisms that live on other living organisms
Standard Percautions infection control measures the are barriers to prevent contact between skin or mucous membranes. (hand hygiene, gloves, gowns, face protection, sharp disposal, respiratory hygiene)
Sterile free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms
Sterile Field A work area free of all pathogens and non-pathogens (including spores)
Sterilization the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)
Susceptible Host A person likely to get an infection or disease.
Transmission- Based Isoaltion Percautions people who is infected or has been infected
Ultrasonic piece of equipment that cleans with sound waves
Viruses tiny particles, smaller than bacteria and other pathogens, which must invade living cells in order to reproduce; when they invade, the cells are damaged or destroyed in the process releasing new particles to infect other cells
Created by: mrsdancona