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DHO Chapter 11

Nutrition and Diets

TermDefinition
absorption act or process of sucking up or in; taking in of nutrients
anorexia loss of appetite
atherosclerosis form of arteriosclerosis characterized by accumulation of fats or mineral deposits on the inner walls of the arteries
basal metabolic rate the amount of energy needed to maintain life when the subject is at complete rest
bland diet diet containing only mild-flavored foods with soft textures
calorie unit of measurement of the fuel value of food
calorie-controlled diets diet in which the number and types of carbohydrates are restricted or limited
carbohydrates group of chemical substances including sugars, cellulose, and starches; nutrient that provide the greatest amount of energy in the average diet
cellulose fibrous form of carbohydrate
cholesterol A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
diabetic ketoacidosis an unconscious condition caused by an increased level of glucose and ketones in the bloodstream of a person with diabetes mellitus
digestion physical and chemical breakdown of food by the body in preparation for absorption
essential nutrients those elements in food required by the body for proper function
fat-restricted diets diet with limited amounts of fats, or lipids
fats also called a lipid; nutrient that provides the most concentrated form of energy; highest-calorie energy nutrient; overweight
hypertension high blood pressure
kilocalorie unit used to measure the energy value of food
liquid diets include both clear liquids and full liquids. Both are nutritionally inadequate and should be used only for short periods of time
low-cholesteroal diet diet that restricts foods high in saturated fat
low-residue diet diet that limits foods containing large amounts of residue, or indigestibles
malnutrition poor nutrition; without adequate food and nutrition
metabolism the use of food nutrients by the body to produce energy
minerals inorganic substances essential to life
nutrition all body processes related to food; the body's use of food for growth, development, and health
nutritional status the state of one's nutrition
osteoporosis condition in which bones become porous and brittle because of lack or loss of calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals
peristalsis rhythmic; wavelike motion of involuntary muscles
protein diets low and high protein; increasing or decreasing protein depending on the patient
proteins one of six essentials nutrients needed for growth and repair of tissues
regular diet is a balanced diet usually used for the patient with no dietary restrictions
sodium-restricted diets special diet containing low or limited amounts of sodium
soft diet special diet containing only foods that are soft in texture
therapeutic diets diet used in the treatment of disease
vitamins organic substances necessary for body processes and life
wellness state of being in good health; well
Created by: mrsdancona