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DHO Chapter 7

Anatomy and Physiology

abdominal anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
anatomy the study of body structure
cell the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
circulatory System is the transport and delivery system of the body
digestive breaks down food into units that can be absorbed by the body
endocrine the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
excretory removes waste from the body
integumentary provides a protective barrier for the body, contains sensory receptors for pain, touch, temperature
lymphatic returns fluid to cardiovascular system, detects, filters, and eliminates disease causing organisms.
muscular moves bones and maintains posture
nervous controls cell function with electrical signals
organ a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
physiology the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms
reproductive producing new life or offspring
respiratory adds oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide from blood.
skeletal protects major organs, provides levers and support for body movement
system a group of physiologically or anatomically related organs or parts
thoracic pertaining to the chest
tissue a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
urinary of or relating to the function or production or secretion of urine
cell membrane Outer, protective, semipermeable covering of a cell
centrosome That area of cell cytoplasm that contains two centrioles; important in reproduction of the cell
chromatin that structure in the nucleus of a cell that contains chromosomes with genes, which carry inherited characteristics
connective tissue body tissue that connects, supports, or binds body organs
cytoplasm the fluid inside a cell; contains water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and salts
dehydration insufficient amounts of fluid in the tissues
edema swelling; excess amount of fluid in the tissues
endoplasmic reticulum fine network of tubular structures in the cytoplasm of a cell; allows for the transport of materials in and out of the nucleus and aids in the synthesis and storage of protein
epithelial tissue tissue that forms the skin and parts of the secreting glands, and that lines the body cavities
Golgi apparatus that structure in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell
lysosomes those structures in the cytoplasm of a cell that contain digestive enzymes to digest and destroy old cells, bacteria, and foreign matter.
meiosis the process of cell division that occurs in gametes, or sex cells
mitochondria those structures in a cell that provide energy and are involved in the metabolism of the cell
mitosis process of asexual reproduction by which cells divide into two identical cells
muscle tissue body tissue composed of fibers that produce movement
nerve tissue body tissue that conducts or transmits impulses throughout the body
nucleolus the spherical body in the nucleus of a cell that is important in reproduction of the cell
nucleus the structure in a cell that controls cell activities such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
organelles structures in the cytoplasm of a cell, including the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, and Golgi apparatus
pathophysiology Study of biological and physical manifestation of disease
pinocytic vesicles pocket like folds found in the cell membrane, allowe large molecules such as proteins and fat to enter the cell
protoplasm thick, viscous substance that is the physical basis of all living things
abdominal cavity space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen
abdominal regions right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, left lower quadrant, and right lower quadrant
anterior before or in front of
body cavities Spaces within the body that contain vital organs.
body planes reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
caudal pertaining to any tail or tail-like structure
cranial pertaining to the skull
cranial cavity Contains the brain
distal most distant or farthest from the trunk; center or middle
dorsal pertaining to the back; in back of
dorsal cavity cavity along the posterior side of the body made of the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity
frontal plane vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
inferior below; under
lateral pertaining to the side
medial pertaining to the middle or midline
midsagittal plane an imaginary lien drawn down the midline of the body to divide the body into a right side and a left side
pelvic cavity the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera
posterior toward the back; behind
proximal closest to the point of attachment or area of reference
spinal cavity contains the spinal cord
superior above, on top of, or higher than
thoracic cavity contains the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
transverse plane imaginary line drawn through the body to separate the body into a top half and a bottom half
ventral pertaining to the front, or anterior, part of the body; in front of
ventral cavity contains the structures within the chest and abdomen
constrict to contract or narrow; to make smaller
crusts a scab; outer covering or coat
cyanosis bluish color of the skin, nail beds, and/or lips due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood
dermis the skin
dilate enlarge or expand; to make bigger
epidermis the outer layer of the skin
erythema redness of the skin
integumentary pertaining to the skin or a covering
jaundice yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes, frequently caused by liver or gallbladder disease
macules a discolored but neither raised nor depressed spot or area on the skin
papules solid, elevated spot or area on the skin
pustules small, elevated, pus- or lymph-filled area of the skin
sebaceous glands oil-secreting gland of the skin
subcutaneous fascia layer of tissue that is under the skin and connects the skin to muscles and underlying tissues
sudoriferous glands sweat-secreting gland of the skin
vesicles blister; a sac full of water or tissue fluid
wheals itchy, elevated areas with an irregular shape; insect bites and hives
appendicular skeleton the bones that form the limbs or extremities of the body
axial skeleton the bones of the skill, rib cage, and spinal column; the bones that form the trunk of the body
carpals bone of the wrist
clavicles collarbone
diaphysis the shaft, or middle section, of a long bone
endosteum membrane lining the medullary canal of a bone
femur thigh bone of the leg; the longest and strongest bone in the body
fibula outer and smaller bone of the lower leg
fontanels a soft, membrane-covered space between the bones at the front and the back of a newborn's skull
foramina a passage or opening; a hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
humerus long bone of the upper arm
ligaments fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
medullary canal inner, or central, portion of a long bone
metacarpals bone of the hand between the wrist and each finger
metatarsals bone of the foot between the instep and each toe
os coxae the hipbone; formed by the union of the ilium, ischium, and pubis
patella the kneecap
periosteum fibrous membrane that covers the bones except at joint areas
phalanges bones of the fingers and toes
radius long bone of the forearm, between the wrist and elbow
red marrow soft tissue in the epiphyses of long bones
scapula shoulder blade or bone
tarsals one of seven bones that forms the instep of the foot
tibia inner and larger bone of the lower leg, between the knee and ankle
ulna long bone in the forearm, between the wrist and elbow
vertebrae bones of the spinal column
yellow marrow soft tissue in the diaphyses of long bones
abduction movement away from the midline
adduction movement towards the midline
cardiac muscle Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
contractability the ability to shorten forcibly
contracture tightening or shortening of a muscle
elasticity the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed
excitability ability to respond to stimuli
extensibility ability to be stretched
extension increasing the angle between two parts; straightening a limb
fascia fibrous membrane covering, supporting, and separating muscles
flexion decreasing the angle between two parts; bending a limb
insertion end or area of a muscle that moves when the muscle contracts
involuntary independent action not controlled by choice or desire
muscle tone state of partial muscle contraction providing a state of readiness to act
origin end or area of a muscle that remains stationary when the muscle contracts
rotation movement around a central axis; a turning
skeletal muscle Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons
tendons fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bones
visceral muscle muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
voluntary under one's control; done by one's choice or desire
aortic valve flap or cusp located between the left ventricle of the heart and the aorta
arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
blood fluid that circulates through the vessels in the body to carry substances to all body parts
capillaries blood vessel that connects arterioles and venues and allows for exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and the body cells
diastole period of relaxation of the heart
endocardium serous membrane lining of the heart
erythrocytes red blood cell
hemoglobin the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells; serves to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
left atrium the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
left ventricle pumps oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body
leukocytes white blood cell
mitral valve flap or cusp between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart
myocardium muscle layer of the heart
pericardium membrane sac that covers the outside of the heart
plasma liquid portion of the blood
pulmonary valve flap or cusp between the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery
right atrium the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
right ventricle the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
septum membranous wall that divides to cavities
systole period of work, or contraction, of the heart
thrombocytes also called a platelet; blood cell required for clotting of the blood
tricuspid valve flap or cusp between the right atrium and right ventricle in the heart
veins blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart
cisterna chyli an enlarged pouch on the thoracic duct that serves as a storage area for lymph moving toward its point of entry into the venous system
lymph a thin coagulable fluid (similar to plasma but) containing white blood cells (lymphocytes) and chyle
lymph nodes many small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions
lymphatic capillaries microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body
lymphatic vessels large vessels with valves, which collect and carry lymph to lymph nodes
right lymphatic duct collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body, and the right arm; empties into the right subclavian vein
spleen a large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm
thoracic duct the major duct of the lymphatic system
thymus a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
tonsils mass of lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx and mouth
autonomic nervous system that division of the nervous system concerned with reflex, or involuntary, activities of the body
brain soft mass of nerve tissue inside the cranium
central nervous system the division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
cerebellum the section of the brain that is dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata; maintains balance and equilibrium
cerebrospinal fluid watery, clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum largest section of brain; involved in sensory interpretation and voluntary muscle activity
diencephalon the section of the brain between the cerebrum and midbrain; contains the thalamus and hypothalamus
hypothalamus that structure in the diencephalon of brain that regulates and controls many body functions
medulla oblongata the lower part of the brain stem; controls vital processes such as respiration and heartbeat
meninges membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord
midbrain that portion of the brain that connects the pons and cerebellum; relay center for impulses
nerves group of nerve tissues that conducts impulses
neuron nerve cell
parasympathetic a division of the autonomic nervous system
peripheral nervous system the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
pons that portion of the brain stem that connects the medulla oblongata and cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain
spinal cord a column of nervous tissue extending from the medulla oblongata of the brain to the second lumbar vertebra in vertebral column
sympathetic that divisions of the autonomic nervous system that allows the body to respond to emergencies and stress; also, to understand and attempt to solve the problems of another
thalamus that structure in the diencephalon of the brain that acts as a relay center to direct sensory impulse to the cerebrum
ventricles one of two lower chambers of the heart; also, a cavity in the brain
aqueous humor watery liquid that circulates in the anterior chamber of the eye
auditory canal either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
auricle also called the pinna, external part of the ear
choroid coat a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
cochlea snail-shaped section of the inner ear; contains the organ of Corti, for hearing
conjunctiva mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the anterior part of the sclera of the eye
cornea the transparent section of the sclera; allows light rays to enter to eye
eustachian tube tube that connects the middle ear and the pharynx, or throat
iris colored portion of the eye; composed of muscular, or contractile, tissue that regulates the size of the pupil
lacrimal glands it produce tears; it constantly moisten and cleanse the eye
lens crystalline structure suspended behind the pupil of the eye; refracts or bends light rays onto the retina; also, the magnifying glass in a microscope
organ of Corti structure in the cochlea of the ear; organ of hearing
ossicles small bones, especially the three bones of the middle ear that amplify and transmit sound waves
pinna also called the auricle; external portion of the ear
pupil opening or hole in the center of the iris of the eye; allows light to enter the eye
refracts breaks; forces back; bends as in bending a ray of light
retina the sensory membrane that lines the eye and is the immediate instrument of vision
sclera white outer coat of the eye
semicircular canals structures of the inner ear that are involved in maintaining balance and equilibrium
tympanic membrane the eardrum
vestibule small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal
vitreous humor jellylike mass that fills the cavity of the eyeball, behind the lens
alveoli microscopic air sacs in the lungs
bronchi two main branches of the trachea; air tubes to and from the lungs
bronchioles small branches of the bronchi; carry air in the lungs
cilia hairlike projections
epiglottis leaf-shaped structure that closes over the larynx during swallowing
expiration the expulsion of air from the lungs; breathing out air
inspiration breathing in; taking air into the lungs
larynx voice box, located between the pharynx and trachea
lungs organ of respiration located in the thoracic cavity
nasal cavities space between the cranium and the roof of the mouth
nasal septum bony and cartilaginous partition that separates the nasal cavity into two sections
nose the projection in the center of the face; the organ for smelling and breathing
pharynx the throat
respiration the process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide by way of the lungs and air passages
sinuses cavity or air space in a bone
tracheae windpipe; air tube from the larynx to the bronchi
ventilation the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
alimentary canal the digestive tract from the esophagus to the rectum
anus external opening of the anal canal, or rectum
colon the large intestine
duodenum first part of the small intestine; connects the pylorus of the stomach and the jejunum
esophagus tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach
gallbladder small sac near the liver; concentrates and stores bile
hard palate bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth
ileum final section of small intestine; connects the jejunum and large intestine
jejunum the middle section of the small intestine; connects the duodenum and ileum
large intestine the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
liver largest gland in the body; located in the URQ of the abdomen; two of its main functions are excreting bile and storing glycogen
mouth oral cavity; opening the digestive tract, or alimentary canal
pancreas gland that is dorsal to the stomach and that secretes insulin and digestive juices
peristalsis rhythmic, wavelike motion of involuntary muscles
pharynx the throat
rectum The last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are eliminated
salivary glands glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion
small intestine that section of the intestine that is between the stomach and large intestine; site of most absorption of nutrients
soft palate tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth; separates the mouth from the nasopharynx
stomach enlarged section of the alimentary canal, between the esophagus and the small intestine; serves as an organ of digestion
teeth hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating food
tongue muscular organ of the mouth; aids in speech, swallowing, and taste
vermiform appendix a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
villi tiny projections from a surface; in the small intestine, projections that aid in the absorption of nutrients
bladder membranous sac or storage area for a secretion; also, the vesicle that acts as the reservoir for urine
Bowman's capsule part of the renal corpuscle in the kidney; picks up substances filtered from the blood by glomerulus
cortex the outer layer of an organ or structure
glomerulus microscopic cluster of capillaries in Bowman;s capsule of the nephron in the kidney
kidneys bean-shaped organ that excretes urine; located high and in back of the abdominal cavity
medulla inner, or central, portion of an organ
nephrons structural and functional unit of the kidney
ureters tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body
urinary meatus external opening of the urethra
urine the fluid excreted by the kidney
adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
endocrine ductless gland that produces an internal secretion discharged into the blood or lymph
hormones chemical substance secreted by an organ or gland
ovaries endocrine gland or gonad that produces hormones and the female sex cell, or ovum
pancreas gland that is dorsal to the stomach and that secretes insulin and digestive juices
parathyroid glands one of four small glands located on the thyroid gland; regulated calcium and phosphorus
pineal body a small endocrine gland in the brain
pituitary gland small, rounded endocrine gland at the base of the brain; regulates function of other endocrine glands and body processes
placenta temporary endocrine gland at the base of the brain; regulates function of other endocrine glands and body processes
testes gonads or endocrine glands that are located in the scrotum of the male and that produce sperm and male hormones
thymus organ in the upper part of the chest, lymphatic tissue, and endocrine gland that atrophies at puberty
thyroid gland endocrine gland that is located in the next and regulars body metabolism
Bartholin's glands two small mucous glands near the vaginal opening
breasts mammary, or milk, gland located on the upper part of the front surface of the body
Cowper's glands the pair of small mucous glands near the male urethra
ejaculatory ducts in the male, duct or tube from the seminal vesicle to the urethra
endometrium mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus
epididymis tightly coiled tube in the scrotal sac; connects the testes with the vas or ductus deferens
fallopian tubes oviducts; in the female, passageway for the ova from the ovary to uterus
fertilization conception; impregnation of the ovum by the sperm
labia majora two large folds of adipose tissue lying on each side of the vulva in the female
labia minora two folds of membrane lying inside the labia majora
penis external sex organ of the male
Created by: mrsdancona