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Nervous system


Neuron The basic unit of the nervous system. They carry electrochemical messages.
Soma Also known as the cell body. It is the main section of a neuron.
Axon A single, long fiber that carries messages away from the cell body towards the next neuron.
Dendrites Short fibers which carry messages from other neurons to the cell body. They pick up information.
Nucleus The control center/ brain of the neuron.
Synapse The gap between two neurons.
Frontal Lobe This part of the brain controls thinking.
Parietal Lobe This part of the brain controls perception of heat, cold, pressure, and pain.
Occipital Lobe This part of the brain controls your vision.
Temporal Lobe This part of the brain controls hearing.
Cerebrum The uppermost & largest part of the brain. It helps you think & remember. It controls voluntary muscle movements.
Cerebrum It identifies information gathered by the senses. It’s composed of two hemispheres. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body.
Cerebellum The second largest part of the brain. It adjusts the motor impulses so the body movements are smooth rather than jerky. It also sends out impulses that help control muscle coordination and balance.
Medulla Also known as the brain stem. It controls many automatic body processes such as breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, and digestion.
Central Nervous System Regulates body activities and is made up of the brain and spinal cord. (Centrally located)
Peripheral Nervous System Made up of the nerves that connect the CNS to all parts of the body.
Cochlea Spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ Corti, which produces the nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.
Auditory Nerve Bundle of nerve fibers that carries hearing information from the cochlea to the brain.
Optic Nerve Each of the second pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye.
Voluntary Actions of someone’s free will…person can control it.
Corpus Callosum A thick bundle of fibers connecting the 2 hemispheres of the brain.
Nerve Enclosed cable like bundle of axons in the PNS. It provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to spherical organs.
Hemispheres There are 2 hemispheres. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body.
Right Hemisphere The hemisphere that controls creativity.
Left Hemisphere The hemisphere that controls reading, writing, and math.
Spinal Cord Runs the entire length of the neck and back. It connects the brain with the rest of the nervous system.
Sensory Neurons Carry impulses from special receptors (sense organs) to the brain and the spinal cord.
Motor Neurons Carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the body, which carry out the instructions from the nervous system.
OCD Obsessive compulsive disorder. Type of illness that causes repeated unwanted thoughts. To get rid of the thoughts the person does the same task over and over again.
Epilepsy A condition that causes seizures. (Strong muscles twitches caused by abnormal electrical in the brain) May lose control of muscles, may not be able to speak, or may lose consciousness of a brief time,
Concussion Warning signs include dilated pupils and vomiting. Also known as TBI, traumatic brain injury.
Stroke This happens when oxygen is cut off to a part of the brain.
Alzheimer's You are at a higher risk as you age. It is frequently seen in the elderly. It affects memory and personality.
Tourette's Syndrome It can cause motor and vocal tics.
Migraine Stress and certain types of food can trigger it. Bright lights and noise may intensify this condition.
Spinal Cord Injury A injury that can lead to paralysis. A person loses feeling and often cannot move some parts of the body.
Reflex Response An involuntary reaction to a stimulus. It is important because it avoids serious injury and helps protects you.
Protecting Your Brain Eat notorious foods, get enough rest, wear protective gear such as a helmet, wear a seat belt in the car, and avoid alcohol &drugs. You can also do your best to protect yourself against disease.
Created by: linderemily