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Substances

Substances Vocab

TermDefinition
Drug Any substance, other than food, that changes the structure or function of the body
Medicine A substance, either prescription or OTC that changes the structure or function of the body; prevent diseases, cure diseases, maintain health
Addiction Synonym for dependence
Dependence The brain developing a chemical need for a drug and cannot function normally without it
Physical Dependence A drug user's body requiring the drug to function
Psychological Dependence A drug user considering the drug as a regular,essential part of coping with daily life
Withdrawal A group of symptoms that occur when a dependent person stops taking a drug. Can last from three to seven days and include shakiness, sleep problems, irritability, etc.
Tolerance With repeated use of a drug, its effects in the brain become reduced. This causes a drug user's body to need increasingly larger amounts of it to achieve the original effect
Synergistic Occurs when drugs interact to produce effects greater than those that each drug would produce alone
Antagonistic Occurs when each drug's effect is canceled out or reduced by the other. Neither drug has the predicted effect
Drug use Using drugs correctly for medical purposes such as to prevent diseases, cure diseases, or to maintain health
Drug misuse The improper use of medicines- either prescription or over-the-counter drugs. ex: taking too much of the prescribed amount of a drug, not taking medicine for the correct period of time, ect.
Drug abuse When a drug is intentionally used improperly or unsafely. ex: a person is abusing prescription painkillers if he or she takes them to cause a "high"
Prescription drugs A drug that can be obtained only with a written order from a doctor and can be purchased only at a pharmacy
Over-the-counter (OTC) Drugs A medicine that is sold legally in pharmacies and other stores without a doctor's prescription. ex: aspirin, cold and cough remedies, and some sleep aids
Stimulants Drugs that speeds up activities of the central nervous system. They increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and alertness
Depressants A psychoactive drug that slows brain and body reactions. They slow body functions by decreasing heart and breathing rates and lowering blood pressure
Hallucinogens A drug that distorts perception, thought, and mood. They overload the brain with sensory information, causing a distorted sense of reality. They are illegal and have no medical use
Club Drugs Got their name from the fact that they first gained popularity at dance clubs and raves. The strength and quality of them is highly unpredictable because their effects are different from person to person and are very dangerous
Inhalants A breathable chemical vapor that produces mind-altering effects
Steroids Artificial forms of the male hormone testosterone that increase muscle size and strength
Marijuana The leaves, stems, and flowering tops of the hemp plant. It is also called "pot", "dope", "weed", or "grass". Usually smoke or mixed with food and eaten
Gateway Drug Typically marijuana is a ________ to using other "harder" drugs
Analgesic A pain reliever
Zero Tolerance Law A policy that enforces strict consequences for underage drinking
Reverse Tolerance A condition in which less and less of a drug causes intoxication
Intoxication The state in which a person's mental and physical abilities are impaired by a substance
BAC The amount of alcohol in a person's blood, expressed as a percentage. The legal percent in Illinois for 21+ is .08%
Fetal alcohol syndrome A group of birth defects caused by the effects of alcohol on an unborn child
FDA Inspects, tests, and assesses the safety of food, drugs, and a variety of consumer goods
Tar The dark, sticky substance that forms when tobacco burns. Is a mixture of hundreds of chemicals
Nicotine A chemical produced naturally by tobacco plants as an insecticide to protect the plants' leaves from insects. It is also a very addictive chemical in tobacco products
Carbon Monoxide An odorless, poisonous gas released when substances- including tobacco- are burned
Second hand Smoke The combination of mainstream and sidestream smoke. Also known as environmental tobacco smoke. It is inhaled by everyone near the smoker
Sidestream Smoke Smoke that goes into the air directly from the cigarettes. Contains twice as much tar and nicotine as mainstream smoke
Mainstream Smoke Exhaled from a smoker's lungers
Emphysema A disorder in which alveoli in the lungs can no longer function properly. Tobacco smoke can cause this
Bronchitis An infection that causes the mucous membranes lining the bronchi to become inflamed. The inflamed membranes secrete a large amount of thick mucus that must be removed by coughing
Cirrhosis When fat-filled liver cells die, leaving behind useless scar tissue. Can be a result of heavy drinking and may lead to liver failure and death
BAL Very similar to BAC. Measures the amount of alcohol in the blood.
Created by: isasgarbossa