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substances vocab

Drug Any substance, other than food, that changes the structure or function of the body.
medicine a compound or preparation used for the treatment or prevention of disease, especially a drug or drugs taken by mouth.
physical dependence a physiological state of adaptation to a substance, the absence of which produces symptoms and signs of withdrawal.
psychological dependence involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of drug use or engagement in certain behaviors.
withdrawal Physical and mental symptoms that occur after stopping or reducing intake of a drug.
tolerance a person's diminished response to a drug, which occurs when the drug is used repeatedly and the body adapts to the continued presence of the drug.
synergistic used to describe the effect of drugs working together — where one drug increases the other's effectiveness.
antagonistic A substance that acts against and blocks an action.
drug use a person who takes drugs
drug misuse the use of a drug for purposes for which it was not intended or using a drug in excessive quantities.
drug abuse the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs.
prescription drugs a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
OTC drugs can be obtained without a prescription.
stimulants psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both.
depressants having the quality of depressing or lowering the vital activities
hallucinogens overload the brain with sensory info and is mind addicting
club drugs actions and effects are different person to person and is mind and body addicting
inhalants chemical vapors replace oxygen and can stimulate the heart or depress brain function
steroids used to relieve swelling and inflammation, such as prednisone and cortisone; vitamin D; and some sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol.
marijuana changes the way information reaches and is acted upon the brain
gateway drug a habit-forming drug that, while not itself addictive, may lead to the use of other addictive drugs.
analgesic any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain
zero tolerance law A law, policy, or practice that provides for the imposition of severe penalties for a proscribed offense or behavior without making exceptions for extenuating circumstances.
reverse tolerance the phenomenon of a reversal of the side-effects from a drug, the reduction of insensitivity caused after drug tolerance has been established
intoxication the state of being intoxicated
BAC/BAL The amount of alcohol in a person's blood, expressed as a percentage
% in IL .08%
fetal alcohol syndrome Physical and mental damage in a child due to alcohol exposure while in the womb.
FDA a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
tar A solid, sticky substance that remains when tobacco is burned. It accumulates in the lungs of smokers and is considered carcinogenic.
nicotine An alkaloid made by the tobacco plant or produced synthetically.
carbon monoxide a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm
second hand smoke smoke inhaled involuntarily from tobacco being smoked by others.
sidestream smoke smoke that passes from a cigarette into the surrounding air, rather than into the smoker's lungs.
mainstream smoke Smoke released by a burning tobacco product and directly inhaled by the smoker.
emphysema a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness.
bronchitis Inflammation of the lining of bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the lungs.
cirrhosis Chronic liver damage from a variety of causes leading to scarring and liver failure.
Created by: micsak