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Crim Ch5 Vocab

vocab for chapter 5 - trait theory

Trait Theory the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits
Sociobiology the view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to survive and preserve the species
Hypoglycemia a condition that occurs when glucose (sugar) in the blood falls below levels necessary for normal and efficient brain functioning
Androgens male sex hormones
Testosterone the principal male hormone
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) condition, postulated by some theorists, wherein several days before and during menstruation, excessive amounts of female sex hormones stimulate antisocial, aggressive behavior
Neurophysiology the study of brain activity
Conduct Disorder (CD) a pattern of repetitive behavior in which the rights of others or social norms are violated
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention, along with impulsivity and hyperactivity
Neurotransmitters chemical compounds that influence or activate brain functions
Arousal Theory the view that people seek to maintain a preferred level of arousal but vary in how they process sensory input. A need for high levels of environmental stimulation may lead to aggressive, violent behavior patterns
Monozygotic twins Identical twins
Dizygotic twins Fraternal twins
Contagion effect people become deviant when they are influenced by others with whom they are in close contact
Psychodynamic Theory theory, originated by Freud, that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes that develop early in childhood and involve the interaction of the id, ego, and superego
id the primitive part of people's mental makeup, present at birth, that represents unconscious biological drives for food, sex, and other life-sustaining necessities. the id seeks instant gratification without concern for the rights of others
ego the part of the personality developed in early childhood that helps control the id and keep people's actions within the boundaries of social convention
superego incorporation within the personality of the moral standards and values of parents, community, and significant others
Attachment Theory Bowlby's theory that being able to form an emotional bond to another person is an important aspect of mental health throughout the life span
Behavior Theory the view that all human behavior is learned through a process of social reinforcement (rewards and punishment)
Social Learning Theory the view that people learn to be aggressive by observing others acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts
Behavior Modeling the process of learning behavior (notably, aggression) by observing others. aggressive models may be parents, criminals in the neighborhood, or characters on TV or in movies
Cognitive Theory psychological perspective that focuses on the mental processes by which people perceive and represent the world around them and solve problems
Information-Processing Theory theory that focuses on how people process, store, encode, retrieve, and manipulate information to make decisions and solve problems
Personality the reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions, that distinguish one person from another
Antisocial Personality combination of traits, such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, hedonism, and inability to empathize with others, that make a person prone to deviant behavior and violence; also referred to as sociopathic or psychopathic personality
Nature Theory the view that intelligence is largely determined genetically and that low intelligence is linked to criminal behavior
Nurture Theory the view that intelligence is not inherited by is largely a product of environment. low IQ scores do not cause crime but may result from the same environmental factors
Mood Disorder a condition in which the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior, during which a child often loses his or her temper, often argues with adults, and often actively defies or refuses to comply with adlts' requests or rules
Schizophrenia a severe disorder marked by hearing nonexistent voices, seeing hallucinations, and exhibiting inappropriate responses
Bipolar Disorder an emotional disturbance in which moods alternate between periods of wild elation and deep depression
Primary Prevention Programs programs, such as substance abuse clinics and mental health associations, that seek to treat personal problems before they manifest themselves as crime
Secondary Prevention Programs programs that provide treatment, such as psychological counseling, to youths and adults after they have violated the law
Created by: nracine14
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