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Health Chapter 6

Preventing Diseases

The study of the immune system - all its functions, disorders and diseases is called..... Immunology
What are viruses such as fungi or bacteria called? Pathogens
What is the most important component of the immune system? White Blood Cells
What is the "soldiers" of your immune system that search out and destroy organisms that is not part of the body? Leukocytes
These kill pathogens by engulfing and disposing of them or by using germ-killing chemicals Phagocytes
What is another name for white blood cells? Leukocytes
These kill infected cells, direct other Leukocytes into battle, and also secrete germ- killing anti-bodies into lymph and blood system..... Lymphocytes
The word meaning the chemical signals Leukocytes use to communicate over long distances Interleukins
What is the chemical "alarm signal" that Leukocytes send out when they detect a invasion Histamine
This is a condition in which capillaries become larger to allow more blood to reach the affected area, which causes the issue to become red and swollen and tender.... Inflammation
These are Y-shaped protein molecules that fight pathogens Antibodies
True or False.... Antibodies activate pathogens until they can be destroyed? False... they inactivate pathogens until they can be destroyed
True or False.... Antibodies mark pathogens to be destroyed by other defense mechanisms? True
A complex network of fluid- filled vessels and chambers that help transport white blood cells through body and aid leukocytes in cleansing body of pathogens...... Lymphatic System
This is a liquid contained in all the body's tissues and is supplied by blood. It surrounds cells and help them maintain proper water balance Tissue Fluid
This is a tiny, thin- walled tube that excess tissue fluid leaves tissue... Lymph Capillaries
What does tissue fluid become once it enters the lymph capillaries Lymph
This is a bean shaped organ that lymph passes as it goes through the lymphatic system Lymph nodes
These are special accumulations of lymphatic tissue in throat that help defend against infections of throat and digestive tract tonsils and adenoids
Inflammation of tonsils.... Tonsillitis
These are located in wall of lower intestine Peyer's Patches
Body's largest lymph organ.. It filters worn out red blood cells from blood... cleanse body of pathogens.. holds extra blood for an emergency Spleen
Important to the immune system..Where T cells are matured and trained after they are produced in bone marrow. Important when young not so much as you age... Thymus
elevated body temperature... Hinder growth of pathogens also speeds up activity of leukocytes to help fight disease Fever
This produce white blood cells Bone Marrow
Contains harmless bacteria which prevent harmful bacteria and yeast from taking residence Colon
Secrete tears and has lysozyme which destroys bacteria Lacrimal Glands
This secretes germ- killing antibiotics into alveoli lungs
This filters toxins from blood and breaks them down for elimination Liver
This acts as flypaper catching most pathogens before they can enter lungs. Cilia Mucous Membranes
This serves as a shield that protects body from pathogens...one of the most effective defenses against infection Skin
This produces hydrochloric acidand enzymes that destroy bacteria Stomach
These are lymph node tissues....Act as barriers to bacteria and viruses Tonsils and Adenoids
This is the study of disease, its causes, and its treatments... Pathology
The two categories diseases can be divided into Infectious and Noninfectious
These are caused by invading pathogens such as bacteria, viruses or fungi Infectious Diseases
This results from factors such as aging, malnutrition, hormonal imbalances, genetic or developmental problems or malfunctioning organs or systems Noninfectious Diseases
A disease that is severe but lasts only a short time or occurs suddenly Acute
A disease that lasts for a long time or tends to recur often Chronic
These are a type of infectious diseases that can be spread from person to person Communicable
These are a type of Infectious disease that cannot be spread from person to person Noncommunicable
Microscopic, single- celled organisms that cause most infectious diseases Bacteria
This type of bacteria lives in the absence of oxygen and obtain oxygen from food. Anaerobic Bacteria
A tiny capsule of genetic info that reprograms a cell to produce new virus particles instead of its normal products. Virus
Microscopic single celled creatures that resemble miniature animals. Often serious Protozoa
An animal that transmits infection is called a ... Vector
A condition of resistance to a particular disease or pathogen Immunity
A type of immunity that results from circulating antibodies or memory cells in bloodstream Acquired immunity
This type of immunity helps protect infants and newborns from infections. Allows child to survive until his own immune system can function properly.. Inborn immunity
This type of immunity happens when many pathogens infect only a certain type of organism Species Immunity
This is the practice of introducing weakened or dead pathogens into the body to provoke the immune system into developing an acquired immunity Vaccination
A substance that stimulates your immune system Vaccine
Substances produced by bacteria and stuff that stop the growth of bacteria Antibiotics
Diseases not caused by pathogens Noninfectious diseases
Diseases in which tissues and organs gradually lose their ability to function properly Degenerative Diseases
a degenerative condition that affects older people. The bones deteriorate and become brittle Osteoporosis
When a victim loses alot of memory Dementia
Affects person's control of posture and movement Parkinson's Disease
This is a disease that occur during development in womb and are present at birth Congenital Disease
Disease that results from hereditary genetic defects Genetic Disease
Diseases that are caused by malfunctioning of the endocrine system Hormonal Diseases
This is one of the most common hormonal diseases which occurs when the body loses the ability to properly control the amount of sugar in the blood Diabetes mellitus
This is the process of steady decline in body systems that begins during your twenties which eventually cause various organs and systems to fail Aging
This is the leading cause of death in the United States of America and in industrialized nations. Its abbreviation is CD Cardiovascular disease
This means good death. This is injected intentionally which causes or hastens death in order to prevent or end suffering Euthanasia
This type of disease is caused by malfunctions of the immune system Immunological diseases
This is the most common type of immunological diseases. Occurs when the immune system overreacts to a foreign substance such as pollen, dust or certain foods Allergy
This type of Immunological disease is another type of allergy. In which the bronchial tubes constrict tightly when an irritating substance is inhaled. Animal dander, cockroach feces etc... Asthma
This type of disease occur when the immune system attacks the body. Type 1 diabetes Autoimmune diseases
This results from an improper diet. Also known ad deficiency disease. Results from shortage of minerals and vitamins. Anemia Nutritional Disease
These type of disease is in which symptoms are caused by mental or emotional factors rather than physical problems. Such as digestive problems. headaches and chronic pain Psychosomatic disease
This is a condition in which a person is preoccupied with the idea that he has a serious or rare disease when in fact there is nothing physically wrong. Hypochondriasis
This is a condition that results from the runaway growth of the body's own cells Cancer
These are the four types of cancer... 1) Carcinomas 2) Sarcomas 3) Lymphomas 4) Leukemias
This type of cancer results from mutations in the cells that line the cavities and ducts of the body. This common type of cancer include lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and colorectal cancer Carcinomas
This type of cancer develops from mutant cells in the body's connective tissue, most soft- tissue cancers and bone cancers are this type of cancer Sarcomas
This type of cancer develops within the lymph nodes from mutant lymphocytes or lymphatic tissue; Types of this cancer include: Hodgkin's disease, Burkitt's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma Lymphomas
This type of cancer results when mutant, immature leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and enter the bloodstream in large numbers Leukemias
This is cancer that develops from mutant melanocytes or (pigment cells) in the skin Melanoma
This is a mass of rapidly reproducing cells Tumor
This is when a tumor is not cancerous. This means that the tumor shows no tendency to spread throughout the body Benign
This describes a tumor composed of cells capable of leaving the tumor and spreading throughout the body. This is when the victim is told they have cancer. Malignant
This is any condition that hinders a person from performing ordinary activities Disability
This is a person who has lost the use of his legs Paraplegic
This is a person who has impaired mobility in both the legs and arms Quadriplegic
This is a device that amplifies sounds too faint for the hearing- impaired person to hear Hearing aid
This is a device that translates sound waves into electrical pulses that are sent to the cochlea through a wire Cochlear implant
This is any condition that interferes with the body's normal functioning. Disease
This is the amount of force that blood exerts upon the walls of the blood vessels. Normal is 120/18 - 130/85 Blood pressure
This is when the resting blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. This is also known as hypertension. High blood pressure
This is the hardening of the arteries. A gradual degeneration of the artery walls that causes them to become stiff and hard. Many forms of heart disease involve this. Arteriosclerosis
This is one of the most common forms of Arteriosclerosis. This occurs when fatty deposits buildup in the inner walls of blood vessels just beneath the surface layer of cells narrowing the artery and often causing it become hard. Atherosclerosis
This (or CAD) is when Atherosclerosis occurs in the coronary arteries. It causes the blood supply to the heart muscle to diminish which in turn reduces the hearts pumping ability which eventually leads to heart failure Coronary artery disease
This is the pain of the chest. A squeezing or cramping sensation felt in the heart or upper body typically when the hearts workload is suddenly increased. This is a type of coronary heart disease. Angina Pectoris
A small tablet of this chemical can cause temporary relief of Angina Pectoris by dilating or unconstricting the coronary arteries to allow extra blood to pass through to the heart muscle Nitroglycerin
This occurs when a portion of the heart muscle is completely deprived of oxygen rich blood which is caused by a blockage of a coronary artery. This is also known as Myocardial Infarction Heart attack
This is when the blockage occurs in a major branch of a coronary artery, which causes the heart to be unable to continue beating Cardiac arrest
This is any condition in which the normal rhythm of the heart is impaired. Arrhythmia
This is the most serious form of Arrhythmia, its a condition in which the heart ceases to beat and instead quivers randomly Ventricular fibrillation
This is when the heart is too weak to maintain normal blood circulation. The heart is also to weak to contract strongly Congestive heart failure
This results when a blood vessel becomes clogged which interrupts the supply of oxygen- rich blood to the brain. Also known as a Cerebrovascular Accident Stroke
This is a stationary blood clot that forms in a blood vessel and can block it if it gets big enough Thrombus
This is a piece of a blood clot or other debris that floats through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel. Embolus
This is a weak spot that causes that portion of the artery to balloon outward and may burst and divert blood flow and cause severe bleeding Aneurysm
This is inflammation of the skins sebaceous glands which usually produce sebum to keep the skin soft and moist Acne
This occurs when the feet are infected by a yeast fungus Athletes foot
This is when skin cells of the scalp multiply too rapidly causing itching and flaking Dandruff
This occurs when skin cells are infected with a particular type of virus, causing the cells to reproduce rapidly and form a small mound of infected cells Wart
This is a potentially life- threatening condition in which the acidic by products of fat breakdown build up in the blood preventing the body from functioning properly. Diabetic ketoacidosis
A condition of abnormally high blood sugar caused by untreated diabetes Hyperglycemia
This is a condition of abnormally low blood sugar. This condition impairs the function of body cells (especially brain cells) depriving them of their neccacery fuel Hypoglycemia
This is the study of hormones and the treatment of those disorders which cover all the systems Endocrinology
This is another word for tooth decay. Greatly affects the digestive system. This is a chronic infection caused by nbacterioa that adhere to the teeth forming plaque. Dissolve oles in tooth enamel cavities Dental caries
This is a pocket of infection trapped beneath the gumline or in the tooth socket. Results from untreated tooth decay Abscess
This is a periodontal disease that results when a hard mineral crust on the teeth (known as plaque and tartar) accumulate making the gums become tender and inflamed and cause them to bled easily. Gingivitis
This is a disease that results from untreated Gingivitis in which the gums become detached from the teeth and eventually the bones which support the teeth are destroyed Periodontitis
This is a condition resulting from the appendix becoming inflamed causing the area to become sensitive to the touch. Untreated the appendix may rupture allowing intestinal bacteria to spread through abdominal cavity. This is a life threatening condition Appendicitis
This is one of the most serious diseases of the digestive system. This is cancer of the colon, also known as the rectum. If undetected or left untreated may be fatal Colorectal cancer
This is a painful infection of the colon. This is spread by poor sanitation and is caused by several types of bacteria, viruses and protozoa Dysentery
This is any acute gastrointestinal disease or infection acquired by eating food that is contaminated with microorganisms Food poisoning
This is a type of poisoning that is caused by a type of bacteria from the genus Salmonella that infest meat, eggs, and dairy products. Symptoms include a headache and fever which occur 12 to 24 hours after bacteria is ingested. Can be fatal Salmonella poisoning
This tyoe of food poisoning is found in all meat. Bacteria lives in animals intestines but if not cleaned and prepared properly can spread into meat. For this type of poisoning symptoms occur 1-8 days and may result in kidney failure and death E.coli
This type of poisoning is caused by bacteria that grows rapidly in precooked ham, milk, custard, cream fillings and chicken salad if not properly refrigerated or handled. This bacteria produces a toxin that causes symptoms of poisoning if ingested. Staphylococcus poisoning
This is a uncommon, but severe form of food poisoning that is caused by anaerobic bacteria that can grow in canned foods. Can produce an extremely toxic nerve poison if they multiply in food,12- 36 hours the toxin produces weaknesses, paralysis then death Botulism
This is a open sore in one of the body's membranes Ulcer
This is a ulcer in the lining of the stomach or the duodenum Peptic ulcer
This is any condition in which a shortage of red blood cells or hemoglobin's that exist in the blood. This decreases the ability of the blood to carry needed oxygen to body cells. Caused by Iron deficiency Anemia
This is when a person's blood does not clot or clots very slowly. This condition is usually caused by a heredity defect in a blood protein involved with the formation of blood clots Hemophilia
This is one of the most common liver problems. This condition includes the inflammation of the liver. This can result from a infection, by viruses or other pathogens Hepatitis
This is a liver infection that may be caused by several viruses. This can be acquired by skin contact, contact with infected blood or contaminated food or water. Viral hepatitis
This is a well known immune deficiency disease known as AIDS. Its a syndrome of about 30 different diseases and thought to result from an HIV infection Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
This a slow acting virus, also known as HIV, that infects certain white blood cells and hinders their ability to fight infection. As a number of these cells decrease, the body loses its ability to resist infection, this is thought to cause AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus
This is a relativity common infectious disease that affects the immune system. This is also known as Glandular Fever or Mono. This is caused by a virus that infects B Lymphocytes, the salivary glands and sometimes the spleen and other lymph organs Mononucleosis
This is one of the most common non- infectious diseases. This is a condition in which the joints become inflamed and make movements very painful. Commonly seen in elderly people. Arthritis
This is one of the most widespread form of arthritis. This occurs mainly with the elderly and results simply from the wearing out of the articular cartilage that cushions the joint surfaces Osteoarthritis
This is a form of arthritis that occurs when the body's immune system repeatedly attacks the tissues of a joint which damages the articular cartilage and causes the joints to become inflamed and painful. In serious cases the bones fuse together Rheumatoid arthritis
This is a small, fluid filled cushions that prevent muscles and tendons from rubbing directly against each other or against bones. They reduce friction Bursa
This occurs when a bursa becomes swollen or inflamed. It results from a sports injuries and arthritis Bursitis
This is another word for nerve damage which usually is caused by direct injury to the nerve by a burn or punctured wound and sometimes by the nerve being pushed against a bone. This causes severe pain Neuropathy
This is a condition in which a nerve is simply irritated and inflamed Neuritis
This is a period of paralysis of the Central Nervous System accompanied by a brief period of unconsciousness. This is usually caused by a hard bump on the head Concussion
This is a condition that may result from a concussion or a bad bump of the head which causes the victim to have a lose of memory Amnesia
This is a prolonged state in which a person seems to be unconscious or unaware of his surroundings and usually results from extensive brain damage. This is known to last a few days to years Coma
This is a tightly sealed lining of blood vessels in the central nervous system that prevents most pathogens and harmful substances from entering the brain or cerebrospinal fluid Blood- brain barrier
This is a condition in which one or more layers of the meninges become inflamed. This results when a microorganism manages to get past the blood-brain barrier and invade the meninges Meningitis
This is the inflammation of the brain Encephalitis
This is any of several different disabilities that causes partial paralysis, weakness, lack of coordination or involuntary jerking movement. This results from the cerebrum becoming damaged during or after birth.Ranges from mild to severe physical handicap Cerebral palsy
This is a condition in which the neurons in the brain periodically stop working properly and begin to fire together over and over which disrupts the normal brain activity which then causes a seizure. Epilepsy
These are the two types of seizures Partial seizures and Generalized seizures
This type of seizure affects only part of the brain. Symptoms are usually mild and include temporary twitching or paralysis of a limb, numbness or a tinkling sensation. And during the seizure the victim's alertness or consciousness may be impaired briefly Partial seizures
This type of seizure affects the entire cerebrum and causes victim to lose consciousness. The most severe form of this type of seizure (known as grand mal)is caused by several minutes of convulsions and then unconsciousness. The milder form twitching Generalized seizure
This is a viral respiratory disease that includes a runny nose, nasal congestion and tiredness and at times a mild fever. Symptoms usually last less than two weeks. Common cold
This results from the inflammation of the linings of the trachea or bronchial tubes, this is sometimes triggered by a cold virus when it becomes a chest cold, and sometimes it is caused by a bacterial infections, smoking or exposer to irritating chemicals Bronchitis
This is also known as Influenza, This is caused by a virus that infects the respiratory system and causes weakness, fever, aching muscles, a headache and chest pain. Flu
This results when pathogens invade the lungs and cause the alveoli to fill with fluid. Usually caused by bacteria or a virus. Elderly people who are bedridden and people who are worn down from flu or other infections are most likely to get this disease. Pneumonia
This is a serious lung disease that is caused by a slow- growing bacteria that are difficult to kill causing it to survive and reproduce inside the body's leukocytes. The lungs tissue form fibrous lumps around the infected sites. Tuberculosis
This is a pebble like mineral deposit that develops in a kidney or ureter which causes severe pain and the possibility of a urinary blockage. Commonly seen in people ages 20 - 40 Kidney stones
This is information about you and your family's past and present health problems that often is the foundation of a doctor's diagnosis Medical History
This is any of several diseases that are spread by direct bodily contact during close relations outside God's institutions of marriage Sexually transmited disease
Created by: Leslie Spark