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Chapter 46

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE Etiology/pathophysiology • Backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus
GERD Clinical manifestations/assessment Heartburn (pyrosis) 20 min to 2 hours after eating • Regurgitation • Dysphagia or odynophagia • Eructation
GERD Diagnostic tests Esophageal motility and Bernstein tests • Barium swallow • Endoscopy
Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers Ulcerations of the mucous membrane or deeper structures of the GI tract  Most commonly occur in the stomach and duodenum  Result of acid and pepsin imbalances
 H. pylori Bacterium found in 70% of patients with gastric ulcers and 95% of patients with duodenal ulcers
Gastric ulcers Etiology/pathophysiology Gastric mucosa are damaged, acid is secreted, mucosal erosion occurs, and an ulcer develops
Duodenal ulcers (continued)  Etiology/pathophysiology Excessive production or release of gastrin, increased sensitivity to gastrin, or decreased ability to buffer the acid secretions
Created by: csuga85