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Health 9A

Test I

TermDefinition
placebo a substance with no active ingredients that may still have an effect on the user because of expectation.
double blind study when both groups in a study (control group and experimental group) don’t know if they are getting the drug (treatment) or a placebo and neither does the tester.
patent only the company that develops the drug is allowed to manufacture, market and make money from it for a period of time
Generic Name given by researching company to reflect the drug’s chemical makeup
Brand TRADE name given to a drug by the researching company
Prescription doctor's permission required
over the counter no prescription needed
How does a patent protect the drug company? It gives the company time to make a profit.
How does a patent protect consumers? It keeps drug companies in business and motivates them to research new drugs that may benefit us.
For a drug to be approved, what are some of the necessary key findings? 1. The experimental group (real drug) must have greater benefits from the medicine than the control group (placebo). 2. The benefits must outweigh the risks.
Food and Drug Administration The organization that oversees the testing, manufacturing, packaging and labeling of most foods and drugs in the United States.
What are some of the reasons the FDA has made some mistakes in the past? 1. There are never enough people in a study to see all of the side effects of a drug. 2. The side effects take years to develop…more years than it was researched.
FDA Food and Drug Administration
Placebo effect When a drug “works” due to expectation…because the person believes it is doing what it is intended to do. Example: Hysterical Pregnancy
Are there any OTC drugs in the U.S. that used to be prescription? yes
What is some information one can find about an OTC drug by reading the box it comes in? brand name, generic name, active ingredients, inactive ingredients, strength, dosage, uses, warnings, side effects, directions
Why can we be confident in most cases that generic drugs are as good as brand? Generic drugs have to prove that they are just as EFFECTIVE and SAFE as the brand drug in order to be approved by the FDA.
stimulants speed up
depressants slow down
hallucinogens cause hallucinations
opiates/opioids kills pain and slows down
inhalants cause disorientation
What are the 5 main drug classification discussed in class? stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, inhalants, opiates (opioids)
drug high use of drugs to feel pleasure
List some effects of methamphetamines. Makes people feel like they can do anything, feel brave, decreases appetite, increases energy, decreases fatigue delusions, hallucinations…Meth Bugs, confident, effects judgment, paranoia, Faces of Meth…body wasting away
List some other effects of methamphetamines. Feel euphoric, feel strong, altered reality, increased heart rate…overheated, get hyper, brain damage, tooth loss (rotting teeth)…Meth Mouth
How are methamphetamines classified? 1. Stimulants (speeds up) 2. Hallucinogen (hallucinations)
How many times more powerful are methamphetamines than any natural high? 6 times
natural high comes from any activity that makes you feel good, but doesn't involve drugs
How many times more powerful are methamphetamines than cocaine? 3 ½ times
How are methamphetamines taken into the body? Snort, Swallow, IV, Smoke
Are methamphetamines expensive compared to other street drugs? No
How long can a methamphetamine high last? 12 hours
Most methamphetamine use (60%) is in what part of the world? Asia
Why do some bosses in the Tai work culture give methamphetamines to their workers? The effects of meth...Allow them to work harder and longer hours…increased production (stay awake, more energy, reduced hunger)
Methamphetamines go to the receptor sites causing more release of what? Dopamine
What eventually happens to the meth. receptor sites after they become overloaded? They are so tired that they shut down and stop working.
When the receptors shut down due to overload, what happens to future highs? Reduced effect, users need more to get closer to the same effect
The new meth. molecule is very similar to the _________________ structure Dopamine
The new meth. molecule is very similar to the dopamine structure which tricks the body into releasing more ____________________. dopamine
alcohol is classified as a(n) depressant
nicotine is classified as a(n) stimulant
What is the part of a neuron that directs the electrical impulse (action potential) down the axon? cell body/nucleus
What is the part of a neuron that directs the electrical impulse (action potential) in to the axon branches axon
What is the part of a neuron that receives electrical impulses from other neurons? dendrites
What is the part of a neuron that sends messages directly into the axon terminals? axon branches
What do the axon terminals contain? vesicles
What do the vesicles contain? neurotransmitters
What forces the vesicles to the edge of the axon terminals? electrical impulses (action potential)
What happens after the vesicles are forced to the edge of the axon terminals? neurotransmitters are released into the synapse
What is the synapse? the gap between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron
What happens to the neurotransmitters when they are released into the synapse? Some pair with the receptor sites of the postsynaptic neurons, some go back into the vesicles of the presynaptic neuron and others die off.
What happens when neurotransmitters bind with receptor sites? the message/action is interpreted/performed
Before the messages can be passed down the dendrites of a postsynaptic neuron, what must happen? The chemical message is converted back to electrical
What is the entire process the neurotransmitter goes through? neurotransmission
Here are some factors that affect the way a person reacts to drugs. person's age, weight, gender, what drug it is, tolerance, mental state, allergies, temperature of the drug, physical health status and how it is taken into the body
List 2 factors that do not affect the way a person reacts to drugs. height and blood type
List some ways to get high naturally. laughing/comedy, music, holidays, success, compliments, pets, games, amusement park rides, completing a difficult task, being with friends, etc.
Created by: slsoucy