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Chapter 3 vocab for p.e.d

cardiorespiratory system the system that circulates blood through the body;consists of the heart,blood vessels, and respiratory system.
pulmonary circulation the part of the circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and the lung;controlled by the right side of the heart.
systemic circulation the part of the circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and the rest of the body;controlled by the left side of the heart
venae cavae the large veins through which blood is returned to the right atrium of the heart
atrium one of the two upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing to the ventricles
ventricle one of the two lower chambers of the heart, from which blood flows through arteries to the lungs and other parts of the body
aorta the body's large artery;receives blood from the left ventricle and distributes it to the body
systole contraction of the heart
diastole relaxation of the heart
blood pressure the force exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels; created by the pumping action of the heart
veins vessels that carry blood to the heart
arteries vessels that carry blood away from the heart
capillaries very small blood vessels that distribute blood to all parts of the body
respiratory system the lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles; supplies oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide
aveoli tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood
stroke volume the amount of blood the heart pumps with each beat
cardiac output the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute; a function of heart rate and stroke volume
metabolic rate the rate at which the body uses energy
glucose a simple sugar that circulates in the blood and can be be used by cells to fuel adenosine troshpihate production(atp)
glycogen a complex carbohydrate stored principally in the liver and skeletal muscles; the major fuel source during most forms of intense exercise; glycogen is the storage form of glucose
adenosince triphosphate (atp) the energy source for cellular processes
immediate ("explosive") energy system the system that supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of cellular stores of ATP and creatine phosphate(cp)
nonoxidative(anaerobic) energy system The system that supplies energy to muscle cell through the breakdown of muscle stores of glucose and glycogen; also called the anaerobic system or the lactic acid system because chemical reactions take place without oxygen and produce lactic acid
anerobic occurring in the absence of oxygen
lactic acid a metabolic acid resulting from the metabolism of glucose and oxygen
oxidative(aerobic) energy system the system that supplies energy to cells through the breakdown of glucose,glycogen, and fats;also called the aerobic system because of its chemical reactions require oxygen
aerobic dependent on the presence of oxygen
mitochondria intracellular structures containing enzymes, used in the chemical reactions that convert the energy in food to a form the body can use
Maximal oxygen consumption(vo2max) the highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual is capable of during maximal physical effort; reflecting the body's ability to transport and use oxygen;measured in millimeters of oxygen used per minute per kilogram of body weight
THR(target heart rate) the range of heart rates that should be reached and maintained during cardiorespitory endurance exercise to obtain training effects
heart rate reserve the difference beteen maxium heart rate(mhr)and resting heart rate(rhr); used in one method for calculating target heart rate range
MET a unit of measure that represents the body's resting metabolic rate- that is, the energy requirement of the body at rest
cross training alternating two or more activities to improve a single component of fitness
dehydration excessive loss of body fluid
heat cramps sudden muscle spasms and pain associated with intense excercise in hot weather
heat exhaustion heat illness resulting from in hot weather
heatstroke a severe and often fatal heat illness characterized by significantly elevated core temperature
hypothermia low body temperature due to exposure to cold conditions
frostbite freezing of body tissues characterized by pallor,numbness,and a loss of cold sensation
windchill a measure of how cold it feels based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin cause by cold and wind, the temperature that would have the same cooling effect on a person as a given combination of temperature and wind speed
Created by: zachdesigns