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Nurs 1500 #1

Test # 1 Review Nurse Science

the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. Nurse
a state of physical, mental, social well-being. Not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health
the subjective experience of health versus health as the objective experience. wellness
an objective state of ill health disease
integration of biological, psychological and social elements. bio psychosocial
state which the person constantly adapts to changes in the internal and external environments homeostasis
activities such as routine exercise and good nutrition help clients maintain or enhance their present levels of health health promotion
Activities that motivate people to avoid decline in health or functional levels disease prevention
is true prevention, precedes disease ie. immunization primary prevention
promotes early detection of disease ie. Screening secondary prevention
minimizing effects of illness or disability ie. Rehabilitation tertiary prevention
Physiological- breathing, food, sleep, homeostasis Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - 1
Safety- security of employment, family, health Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - 2
Love/Belonging- friendship, family, sexual intimacy Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - 3
Esteem- self esteem, confidence, achievement, respect Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - 4
Self Actualization- morality, creativity, spontaneity, lack of prejudice Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - 5
Individual strive for independence and are complex whole made of fundamental needs. Inability to meet needs as a result of : lack of strength, will or knowledge. 14 fundamental needs. 1st lady of nursing. Virginia Henderson
1. Person- recipients of nursing care 2. Environment- factors that affect individuals internally and externally 3. Health- State of well being 4. Nursing- what nursing is, what nurses do and how nurses interact with clients Metaparadigm
First nursing theorist, inspired by nursing practice. Clean patient areas: fresh air and light were important factors to promote health and healing. Florence Nightingale
judgements or conclusions that may or may not be correct Inferences
specific clues that lead to a general conclusion Inductive reasoning
premise obtainer primarily from knowledge and experience deductive reasonin
North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Developed a list of common client problems addressed by practicing nurses NANDA
identify, diagnose and treat human responses to health & illnesses. Assessment, Diagnose, Plan, Intervention, Evaluate Nursing Process
collecting, verifying and analyzing client data -Data Collection -Data Validation -Data Clustering -Interpretation of Data Assessment
Orientation phase- introduce yourself, describe position and explain purpose of interview Working phase- gather info about clients health status Termination phase- give client a cue that interview coming to an end, summarize points and ask client if sum Phases of an interview
S- Specific M-Measurable A-Attain R-Relevant T-Time Bound SMART
measurements of a clients health status observed or measured Objective Data
verbal description from client Subjective Data
Identification of a disease or condition on the basis of specific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, medical history ad results of diagnostic tests Medical Diagnosis
describes level or wellness in an individual, family or community that can be enhanced Nurse Diagnosis
1. Diagnostic Label (NANDA) 2. Statement of a related factor 3. Secondary to 4. As evidenced by/manifested by (signs and symptoms) Nursing Diagnosis
1.Diagnostic label NANDA followed by 2.Statement of a related factor (NO evidenced by or as manifested,identifying a basic self-care tasks) Could have a secondary. Risk diagnosis
react to new situations by using learning mechanism we already possess assimilation
thinking process matures to allow us to solve problems (new knowledge accomodation
coping ability (handle demands from the world around us) adaptation
development presents a progression of mental abilities which people learn to think, reason and use language, Development includes 3 abilities:3A cognitive theory
scoliosis (curved spine) congenital defects
osteoporosis (progressive bone disease) disorders of joints, bones, muscles
parkinsons disease ( degenerative disorder of the central nervous system) central nervous system damage
fractures many pathological conditions affect body alignment & movement hence the capacity for exercise and activity (a break in the continuity of the bone) muscoskeletal traum
continuous passive movement machines (passive do for client, active client does on own) CPM
Manner or style of walking, including rhythm, cadence, and speed. Gait
achieved when relatively low centre of gravity is balanced of a wide, stable base of support balance
awareness of the position of body in relation to its parts proprioception
muscles are involved with joint stabilization (permit person to sit upright) antigravity
muscles contract to accomplish the same movement synergestic
Increased muscle tension without muscle shortening. Tightening muscle and holding in a stationary position ie. Footboard of bed Isometric Contraction
Increased muscle tension resulting in muscle contraction and muscle shortage. Changes in muscle strength Isotonic Contraction
Before initial patient/patient environment contact 4 moments of hand hygiene-1
Before aseptic procedure 4 moments of hand hygiene-2
After Body Fluid Exposure Risk 4 moments of hand hygiene-3
After patient/patient environment contact 4 moments of hand hygiene-4
The ability of an infectious microbe to cause disease virulence
healthcare acquired infections Nosocomial
• Tier two: airborne, droplet, contact • Psychological implications • Environment • Equipment • Specimen collection • Bagging waste or linen • Transporting clients Isolation Precautions
• Hospital acquired infection • Community acquired infection • Exogenous • Endogenous Health Care Associated Infection
• Normal Flora • Body defense mechanism • Inflammation • Vascular and cellular responses • Inflammatory exudate • Tissue repair Defense against infection
• Incubation period • Prodromal (early symptom of disease) • Illness stage • Convalescence Infection process
• Contact: direct, indirect, droplet • Air • Vehicles • Vector (mosquitos) Modes of Transmision
• Body openings: mouth, nose, rectal • Breaks in skin • Breaks in mucous membrane: skin in mouth, eyes, nose Portal Exit
• Food • Oxygen • Water • Temperature • pH • Minimal Light Reservoir
• Number • Virulence • Entry and survival in host • Susceptibility of host Infectious Agent
• Infectious agent or pathogen • Reservoir or source for pathogen growth • Portal of Exit • Mode of Transmission • Portal of Entry • Susceptible host Chain of Infection
infections process transmitted from one person to another communicable disease
From a socioenviromental perspective, the major determinants of health are psychosocial risk factors and socioeniromental risk conditions
comparison of data with another source to determine accuracy data validation
recognizing patterns or trends in clustered data, comparing with standards, then establishing a reasoned conclusion data analysis
Types of diagnoses actual, at risk and wellness
organizes cues into patterns that enable the nurse to identify nursing diagnoses data clustering
5 strategies for health 1. build healthy public policy 2. create supportive environments strengthen community action 4. develop personal skills 5.reorient health services ottawa charter
3 major health challenges. reduce inequities, increase prevention, enhance coping mechanisms epp report
first modern government document in western world to broadly define determinants of health as a lifestyle lalonde report
emphasizes use of epidemiological data to determine etiology of health and disease. ie. social income, social status, physical environments 12 SOCIAL DETERMANENTS OF HEALTH/STRATEGIES FOR POPULATION HEALTH
health problems are defined as physiological risk factors; focus on disease medical approach
places responsibility for health on the individual and favours health promotion strategies such as education and social marketing behavioural approach
health is closely tied to social structures such as poverty, unhealthy physical and social environments socioenviromental
The interval when a patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to a type of infection is the illness stage
invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body infection
bring about movement at the joint antagonistic muscles
increased muscle contraction causes muscle shortening, resulting in movement. concentric tensions
helps to control the speed and direction of movement as the muscle lengthens eccentric tensions
weakness on one side of the body hemiparesis
physical force- the resistance encountered during the act of rubbing oe object against another friction
body language provides information about state of mind
postural abnormalities, impaired muscle development, cns damage, musculoskeletal trauma pathological influence on mobility
HOB 45-60 degrees, knees slightly elevated without pressure supported fowlers position
HOB 30 degrees, knees slightly elevated without pressure semi fowlers position
back lying position supine
lying chest down, head to the side prone
lateral, resting on side with major portion of weight on dependent hip or shoulder side lying
weight placed on anterior ilium, humerus and clavicle, arm behind sims
Rescue Activate Alarm Confine Fire Extinguish Fire RACE
Interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms Incubation Period
Interval from onset of non specific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms Prodromal stage
Interval when client manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection Illness Stage
Interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear Convalescence
Created by: bfergie