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Unit 1 Vocab

Chapter 1

Lucy 3.2 billion year old skeleton of first human-like creature
Big Bang Theory A theory that shows how the world was created in the beginning
Neolithic At the end of the stone age.Spread of agricultural practices, and use of polished stone tools
Jared Diamond-Farming Mistake? A book explaining farming was the worst mistake humans ever made
Domestication of Animals When we first domesticated animals as humans
Llama only domesticated animal that was from America
Job Specialism When humans first had independent jobs and counted on each other to fulfill other needs
Religion A belief in god or many gods
Polytheistic belief of many gods.
Buildings After nomadic period humans made houses and buildings for supplies and and shelter
Technology Humans crafted certain rocks and metals to use for easier work or defense
Metal A substance that can be crafted for tools
Wheel A circle to be used to roll things(important invention)
Plow Tool used to garden, created in agriculture revolution
Bronze age(3000BCE) When humans first used bronze as a tool
Iron age(1300BC) When humans first used Iron as a tool
Trade Between two or more people, giving one item for another
Women Status Decline After Nomadic period Women werent needed as much for helping grow food, so men took charge over caring and controlling household.
Civilization Transition The transition of humans being more civilized and not having to worry about finding a meal everyday, so more time to create and think
Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Wheel One of the first inventions humans made, a rolling circle
Religion-Angry Gods When bad things would happen, people assumed the gods were unhappy.
Social Stratification A person having authority over another and that person having authority over another
Cuneiform Writings.
Polytheistic Belief in Many Gods.
Politics Doing something as a ruler to have the people like you.
Hammurabi’s Code First code telling people punishment for crimes and how to govern a place.
Social Classes Classes to have people separated and different amount of importance and treatment
Diffusion of Iron Spread of iron
Old Kingdom(3100-2500BCE) When England focused mostly on art,and the age of pyramid building
Middle Kingdom(2100-1650BCE) The Nile was more reliable. Less conflict in Egypt and more conflict everywhere else.
New Kingdom(1550-700BCE) Lots of Trade, Women ruler in Egypt for first time.
Pharaoh Kings who had complete control, Epyptians.
Centralized Government A Government that was in control of other Governments
Polytheistic Belief in many gods.
Hieroglyphics Egyptian writing system and which pictures stood for objects.
Pyramids Ancient Burial Places of Pharaohs and other high political Egyptians
Paper Papyrus first paper created and made of papyrus
Status women’s declines Less rights given to women because of authority and work done by men.
Women Social standard more in Egypt Egypt had an exception and treated women more fairly, we know this because of the women Pharaoh
Cultural Diffusion the spread of ideas, technology and other things through people to people.
Advanced written language When humans first were able to have human to human speech/letters to communicate
Indus seals Writing of symbols on stones
Harappa Writings of symbols on stones
Mohnejo-Daro One of the largest civilizations in the indus river valley
Social Classes Classes that separate people status and treatment
Long Distance Trade Trades that were by ships or travel for a long distance
Statue of Priest Worship of priest on a statue, fist idol (statue worship)
Statue of fertility A women statue the represents fertility, mostly a women of large hips and breasts.
Polytheistic Belief in many gods
Hinduism Worship of many gods and an afterlife in a different form
Chavin A civilization in Peru that lasted about 700 years and was known for their sculptures
Olmec A ancient civilization that lasted around 800 years and formed on the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico
China A large landmass with many dynasties and history
Shang Ruled China for 500 years, discovered bronze casting
Oracle Bone A bone that would decide rule and answers by god(s)
Mandate of Heaven A ancient Chinese belief that gods let the emperors rule fairly and govern well
Indo-Europeans Family of languages over the greater part of India and Europe
Bantu A person or member of the people of central and southern Africa
Hebrews-Monotheism The first people to believe in one creator and one god
Dinosaurs Large extinct creatures that roamed the earth long ago.
Ancient River Valley An ancient civilization that lived in the Indus River Valley 2500BCE-1500BCE
fertile cresent A place with lots of good land, became somewhere to trade ideas.
Hammurabi the king of Babylon, creator of Hammurabi's Code.
Osiris Osiris was the God of the Nile, and gave people an afterlife.
Dynastic Cycle the rise and fall of dynasties.
Surplus More than you need
civilization organized, people settling in one spot
pictograph drawings that look like what they are
Empire place/places all under control by one person
Dynasty A family that are rulers and passed down to the son or daughter after death
Rosetta Stone Similar and based off Hieroglyphics with minor changes
Feudalism Were lesser leader/kings obeyed larger and more powerful kings
end of the last ice age cause bigger animals to die off, greener lands, more food sources, helped homo-sapiens
Fertile Cresent Shaped in a half circle and very fertile land in Western Asia
teosinte was a early stage of corn before genectically engineered
diffusion the spread of something through word of mouth, migration, trade
Bantu Migration Bantu migrated south in Africa taking over civilization of paleolithic people
peoples of austrailia Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were the first inhabitants about 40,000 years ago
Banpo a major place where a neolithic revolutiong settlement started
Secondary products revolution When settlements of neolithic came in, inventions took a huge leap and animals where domesticated and lots of diffusion happened with technology
pastoral societies Where farming was difficult and you had to use domestications of animals, none in Americas(Llamas)
Catalhuyuk a huge neolithic settlement in southern Anatolia
stateless societies cultural groups in which authority is shared by lineages of equal power instead of being exercised by a central government.
chiefdoms A leader of a group that didnt have as much power as a king but more than a modern day president (Tigris-Euphrates)
What is the significance of the paleolithic era in WH? Longest era in world history, gatherers
In what ways did various Paleolithic societies differ from one another, and how did they change over time? Wherever the lived the geography and landscape caused difference, adapting to their environment, social organizations, religion, government, diet and clothing.
Which Statements in this chapter seem to be reliable and solidly based on facts, and which ones are more speculative and uncertain? While all Paleolithic humans shared a lifestyle of gathering and hunting, different variations in their environments and their different food supplies did create differences among groups and increased everywhere
The Agriculture Revolution marked a decisive turning point in human history, what evidence might you offer to support this claim, and how might you argue against it? new domesticated crops and animals, but humans were able to get enough resources for themselves before agriculture
How early did societies differ from those of the paleolithic era? How does this example of settled gathering and hunting peoples such as the chumash complicate this comparison? Agricultural societies began before the Paleolithic era.
was the agriculture revolution inevitable? Why did it occur so late in humankind? Inevitable,end of Ice Age brings more favorable farming conditions
The Agriculture revolution provides evidence in progress in human affairs. how would you evaluate this statement? People can settle down and form some kind of society
What distinguished civilizations from other forms of human community? Religion, government, culture
how does the term civilization by historians differ from that popular usage? how do you use the term? Civilization is the stage of social culture and civility of a group of people characterized generally, but not always, for social progress.
Civilizations were held together largely by force. Do you agree with this assessment, or where there were other mechanisms of integration as well? Disagree. You could argue they were created by force, as smaller tribes or nation states were brought into the emerging civilizations. But civilizations offered enough benefits that force was not needed