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Urinary System

Major Structures, Functions, Diseases and Conditions

TermDefinition
kidney filters the blood to remove waste products, maintain electrolyte concentrations, and remove excess water to maintain the fluid volume within the body
renal pelvis collects urine produced by the kidneys
urine liquid waste products to be excreted
ureters transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder
urinary bladder stores urine until it is excreted
prostate gland of the male reproductive system that surrounds the male urethra. Disorders of this gland can disrupt the flow of urine.
urinary tract consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and a urethra
renal cortex outer region of the kidney, containing over one million nephrons
medulla inner region of the kidney; containing most of the urine-collecting tubules.
nephron functional unit of the kidney responsible for forming urine by the process of filtration
glomerulus cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule
trigone smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the openings of the ureters and urethra
urethral meatus external opening of the urethra
renal failure inability of one or both kidneys to preform their functions causing the bodies inability to replace damaged nephrons
edema excessive fluid in body tissues
glomerulonephritis AKA Bright's disease, a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and protiens to leak into the urine
polycystic kidney disease genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
renal colic acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone
cystolith stone located within the urinary bladder
urinary tract infection (UTI) infection affecting all or multiple parts of the urinary system
pyelitits inflammation of the renal pelvis
benign prostatic hypertrophy (benign prostatic hyperplasia) (enlarged prostate) (prastatomegaly) abnormal enlargement of the prostatic gland that occurs most often in men over age 50
prostatism condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hypertrophy
nocturnal enuresis urinary incontinence during sleep
urinary retention inability to control the voiding of urine
stress incontinence inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing
Created by: tina.reynolds