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Nutrition Vocab

Chapter 10 Nutrition vocabulary

Nutrients Substances in foods that your body needs to function (work) properly to grow, repair and get energy
Hunger Natural drive to protect against starvation
Appetite Desire, rather than a need for food
Calorie Energy found in food, measured in units of heat. Converted to fuel for your body so you can think and move.
Carbohydrates The body's main source of energy (fuel). They include starches, sugars and fiber which come from foods. 4 calories per gram.
Simple Carbohydrates Sugars that are present in some foods. Examples: fructose (fruits), lactose (dairy), maltose (grains), sucrose (cookies, cakes, candies). Single sugars which break down slower, and stay with you longer.
Complex Carbohydrates Starches (energy) found in foods like rice, grains, pasta, seeds, nuts, potatoes, and legumes (beans). They are sugars linked together, which break down slower, and stay with you longer.
Glucose Simple sugar, body's chief energy (fuel) source.
Glycogen Starch-like substance, stored in the liver and muscle. Is used as needed for energy.
Fiber Tough, stringy part of vegetables, some fruits, and grains. Special form of complex carbohydrate that cannot be digested or used as energy, but pushes waste through the digestive system and helps prevent intestinal problems.
Proteins A vital part of every body cell. Nutrients that help build, maintain and repair body tissues. Made of Amino Acids. They include animal products as well as many soybean products. 4 calories per gram.
Essential Amino Acids The 9 amino acids that the body cannot make, must come from food.
Complete Protein Foods that contain all the essential amino acids and in the proper amounts
Incomplete protein Foods that lack some of the essential amino acids
Fat Made up of Fatty Acids. Most concentrated form of energy. 9 calories per gram. Cushions organs from in jury, insulates body temperature, adds flavor and helps to satisfy hunger.
Saturated Fat A fatty acid that is holding all the possible Hydrogen atom paris. Usually solid at room temperature. If too much known as the "Bad Fats" Increased risk of Heart Disease, Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity.
Unsaturated Fat A fatty acid that is missing one or more Hydrogen pairs. Usually liquid at room temperature and if not too much, known as the "good Fats".
Hydrogenation Adding back in missing Hydrogen atoms to make food have a longer shelf life, give texture and better taste. Used often in processed food.
Linoleic Acid An essential fatty acid, not made by the body, but important for growth and healthy skin.
Cholesterol A fat-like substance produced in the liver of all animals, helps in production of sex hormones and forms a protective sheath around nerve fibers. Too much causes heart & other circulatory diseases.
Vitamins Micronutrients that help regulate many vital body processes including digestion, absorption & metabolism of other nutrients.
Water-Soluble Vitamins Dissolve and pass easily into the blood stream during digestion. They include: C & B complex (8) and are needed each day as they pass daily through the urine.
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Absorbed and transported by fat. Can be stored for later use if needed. Include A, D, E, & K. Found in plant eating animals and vegetables.
Minerals Inorganic (not animal, vegetable, not living) substances that the body cannot make, but that act as catalysts (speed up or slow down a chemical reaction) to help regulate vital (important) body processes.
Water Nutrient that makes up the greatest percentage of your body. It carries nutrients to & waste from the cells. It lubricates joints, allows you to swallow & digest foods and keeps the body temperature correct.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) Amounts of nutrients that will prevent deficiencies in most healthy people. These dietary guidelines are meant to show people what and the amount they should be eating.
Variety Getting foods from all the food groups (meats, grains, dairy, fruits, & vegetables.
Moderation Small Portions. Being careful not to get too much of one type of nutrient, usually trying to keep fat, sugar and salt intake low.
Balance Trying to keep the calories eaten equal to the exercise burned from daily activities. Calories in vs. Calories out.
Micronutrients Nutrients that are needed in small amounts.
Lipid A fatty substance that does not dissolve in water. Chemically fats are a type of this term.
Created by: khertzog