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Health and human development

Behavioural determinants Actions or patterns of living of an individual or a group that impact on health, such as smoking, sexual activity, participation in physical activity, eating practices
Biological determinants Factors relating to the body that impact on health, such as genetics, hormones, body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, birth weight
Biomedical model of health Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care practiced by doctors and/or health professional and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease
Burden of disease The measure of impact of diseases and injuries, it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in the unit called DALY
Determinants of health Factors that raise or lower a level of health in a population or individual. Determinants of health help to explain or predict trends in health and why some groups have better or worse health than others.
What are the determinants of health? Biological, Behavioural, Social, and physical environment
Disability adjusted life year (DALY) A measure of burden of disease, one DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature health and time lived with illness, disease or injury.
Food security The state in which all persons obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate, safe food regularly through local non-emergency sources
Health A complete state of physical, social and mental wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
Health Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE) A measure of burden of disease based on life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality
Health status An individual’s or a population overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors
Human development Creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive and creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. It is about expanding people’s choices and enhancing capabilities, having access to knowledge.
Human development index A measurement of human development which combines indicators of life expectancy, educational levels and income. The human development index provides a single statistic which can be used as a reference for both social and economic development
Life expectancy An indication of how long a person can expect to live, it is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change
Mental Health State of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses with life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to a make a contribution to his or her own community
Morbidity Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group
Mortality Strata The WHO classifies countries into five mortality strata based on the mortality rates of children under five years of age and adults
What are mortality strata groups? Mortality Strata A- very low child and adult Mortality strata B- low child and adult Mortality strata C- low child and high adult Mortality strata D- high child and adult Mortality strata E- high child and very high adult
National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs) A collaborative initiative endorsed by the Commonwealth and all State and Territory governments. The NHPA initiative seeks to focus the health sectors attention on diseases or conditions that have a major impact on the health of Australians.
National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs) part 2 The NHPAs represent the disease groups with the largest burden of disease and potential costs (direct, indirect and intangible) to the Australian community.
What are the NHPAs Mental health, Asthma, Diabetes, Dementia, cancer control, Obesity, Musculoskeletal arthritis, Injury prevention and control, Cardiovascular health.
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was developed from the social model of health and defines health promotion as ‘the process for enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health’.
Ottawa Charter The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion which are enabling, mediating and advocacy
Physical dimensions of health Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems, and includes the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness
Prevalence The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time
Social determinants Aspects of society and the social environment that impact on health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support
Social development The increasing complexity of behaviour patterns used in relations with other people
Social dimension of health Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way
Social Model of health A conceptual framework within which improvements in health and wellbeing are achieved by directing effort towards addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health
Under-five mortality rate The number of deaths of children under five years of age per 1000 live births
Values that underpin Australia’s health system Safe, Effective, Efficient, Continuous, Accessible, Responsive, Sustainable
Youth Twelve to eighteen years of age; however, it should be acknowledge that classification for the state of youth can differ across agencies.
Created by: TaraMahoney