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Chapters 13-17

Abortion Induced premature termination of a pregnancy
Birth control All the methods and procedures that can prevent the birth of a child
Blastocyst Early stage of the developing life form that embeds itself into the endometrial linin of the uterus
Calendar method A form of periodic abstinence in which the variable lengths of a woman's menstrual cycle are used to calculate her fertile period
Cesarean delivery Surgical removal of a fetus through the abdominal wall
Condom A shield designed to cover the erect penis and retain semen ejaculation; "rubber"
Contraception Any method or procedure that prevents fertilization
Contraceptive patch Contraceptive skin patch containing estrogen and progestin; replaced each week for a three week period
Contraceptive ring A thin, polymer contraceptive device containing estrogen and progestin; placed deep within the vagina for a three week period
Contraindications Factors that make the use of a drug inappropriate or dangerous for a particular reason
Curette A metal scraping instrument that resembles a spoon with a cup-shaped cutting surface on its end
Diaphragm A soft rubber cup designed to cover the cervix
Dilation Gradual expansion of an opening or passageway, such as the cervix
Dilation and evacuation (D&E) A second-trimester abortion procedure that requires greater dilation, suction, and curettage than first-trimester vacuum aspiration procedures
Dilation and suction curettage (D&C) A surgical procedure in which the cervical canal is dilated to allow the uterine wall to be scraped; vacuum apiration
Dilation and suction curettage (D&C) A surgical procedure in which the cervical canal is dilated to allow the uterine wall to be scraped; vacuum aspiration
Ectopic pregnancy A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants at a site other than the uterus, typically in the fallopian tubes
Embryo Development stage from the end of the second week after conception until the end of the eighth week
Emergency contraception Contraceptive measures used to prevent pregnancy within five days of unprotected intercourse; also called postcoital or morning-after contraception
Enucleated egg An ovum with the nucleus removed
False labor Conditions that resemble the start of true labor; may include irregular uterine contractions, pressure, and discomfort in the lower abdomen
Fertility The ability to reproduce
Fetus Developmental stage from the beginning of the ninth week after the conception until birth
Human cloning The replication of a human being
Intrauterine device (IUD) A small, plastic, medicated or unmedicated contraceptive device that prevents pregnancy when inserted in the uterus
Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) The abortion procedure performed in the earliest weeks after a pregnancy is established
Medication abortion An abortion caused by the use of prescribed drugs
Minipills Low-dose progesterone oral contraceptives
Oral contraceptive pill A pill taken orally, composed of synthetic female hormones that prevent ovulation or implantation; "the pill"
Outercourse Sexual activity that does not involve intercourse
Periodic abstinence Birth control methods that rely on a couple's avoidance of intercourse during the ovulatory phase of a woman's menstrual cycle; also called fertility awareness, rhythm, or natural family planning
Placebo pills Pills that contain no active ingredients
Postpartum The period after the birth of a baby, during which the uterus returns to it prepregnancy size
Spermicides Chemicals capable of killing sperm
Spontaneous abortion Any cessation of pregnancy resulting from natural causes; also called a miscarriage
Stem cells Premature (pluripotent) cells that have potential to turn into any kind of body cell
Sterilization Generally permanent birth control techniques that surgically disrupt the normal passage of ova or sperm
Therapeutic cloning The use of certain human replication techniques to reproduce body tissues and organs
Transcervical balloon tuboplasty The use of inflatable balloon catheters to open blocked fallopian tubes; a procedure used for some women with fertility problems
Trimester A three-month period of time; human pregnancies encompass three trimesters
Withdrawal (coitus interruptus) A contraceptive practice in which the erect penis is removed from the vagina before ejaculation
Zygote A fertilized ovum
Acupuncture Insertion of fine needles into the body to alter electroenergy fields and cure disease
Allopathy A system of medical practice in which specific remedies (often pharmaceutical agents) are used to produce effects different from those produced by a disease or injury
Ayurveda Traditional Indian medicine based on herbal remedies
Brand name Specific patented name assigned to a drug by its manufacturer
Chemical name Name used to describe the molecular structure of a drug
Chiropractic Manipulation of the vertebral column to relieve misalignments and cure illness
Compliance Willingness to follow the directions provided by another person
Consumer fraud Marketing of unreliable and ineffective services, products, or information under the guise of curing disease or improving health; quackery
Generic name Common or nonproprietary name of a drug
Herbalism An ancient form of healing in which herbal preparations are used to treat illness and disease
Homeopathy The use of minute doses of herbs, minerals, or other substances to stimulate healing
Naturopathy A system of treatment that avoids drugs and surgery and emphasizes the use of natural agents, such as sunshine, to correct underlying imbalances
Osteopathy A system of medical practice in which allopathic principles are combined with specific attention to postural mechanics of the body
Primary care health providers Health care providers who generally see patients on a routine basis, particularly for preventative health care
Quack A person who earns money by purposely marketing inaccurate health information, unreliable health care, or ineffective health products
Quackery The practice of disseminating or supplying inaccurate health information, unreliable health care, or ineffective health products for the purposes of defrauding another person
Self-care movement The trend toward individuals taking increased responsibility for prevention or management of certain health conditions
Bias and hate crimes Criminal acts directed at a person or group solely because of a specific characteristic, such as race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnic background, disability, or other difference
Child maltreatment The act or failure to act by a parent or caretaker that results in abuse or neglect of a child which places the child in imminent risk of serious harm
Family violence The use of physical force by one family member against another, with the intent to hurt, injure or harm
Homicide The intentional taking of one person's life by another person
Identity theft A crime involving the fraudulent use of a person's name, Social Security number, credit line, or other personal, financial or identifying information
Intentional injuries Injuries that are purposely inflicted, either by the victim or by another person
Intimate partner violence (IPV) Interpersonal violence perpetrated by a current or former spouse, date, or cohabiting partner
Stalking A crime involving repeated visual or physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, or threats that would cause fear in a reasonable person
Terrorism Any actions intended to harm or kill civilians in order to intimidate a populace or force a government to take some action.
Unintentional injuries Injuries that occur without anyone's intending that harm be done
Air pollution Substances in the atmosphere that can have adverse effects on human health, crop productivity, and natural communities
Air toxics A class of 177 toxic air pollutants identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as known or suspected causes of cancer or other serious health effects
Asbestos A class of minerals that have a fibrous crystal structure; a known carcinogen when inhaled
Biological air pollutants Living organisms or substances produced by living organisms that cause disease or allergic reactions, including bacteria, molds, mildew, viruses, dust mites, plant pollen, and animal dander, urine or feces
Biological water pollutants Disease-causing organisms that are found in water
Carbon monoxide A gaseous by-product of the incomplete combustion of natural gas, kerosene, heating oil, wood, coal, gasoline, and tobacco; a compound that can "inactivate" red blood cells
Endocrine disrupting chemicals A large class of substances that can interact with the system of glands, hormones, and tissues that regulate many physiological processes in humans, including growth, development from fetus to adult, regulation of metabolic rate and blood sugar, etc
Fecal coliform bacteria A category of bacteria that live within the intestines of warm-blooded animals; the presence of these bacteria is used as an indicator that water has been contaminated by feces
Green space Areas of land that are dominated by domesticated or natural vegetation, including rural farmland, city lawns and parks, and nature preserves
Greenhouse gases A category of gases in the atmosphere that allow solar radiation to pass through the atmosphere to the Earth but then trap the heat that is radiated from the Earth back toward space; include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide
Ionizing radiation Electromagnetic radiation that is capable of breaking chemical bonds, such as X-rays and gamma rays
Nonionizing radiation Forms of electromagnetic radiation that cannot break chemical bonds but may excite electrons or heat biological materials
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Air pollutants from fossil fuel combustion
Radon A naturally occurring radioactive gas that is emitted during the decay of uranium in soil, rock, and water
Solid waste Pollutants that are in solid form including nonhazardous household trash, industrial wastes, mining wastes, and sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants
Toxic pollutants Substances known to cause or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health problems
Tropospheric ozone Ozone comprises three oxygen atoms that are bound into single molecule; tropospheric ozone refers to this substance as it occurs in the lower layer of the atmosphere, close to the ground
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) A wide variety of chemicals that contain carbon and readily evaporate into the air
Crypts Burial locations generally underneath churches
Direct (active) euthanasia Intentionally causing death
Durable power of attorney for health care A legal document that designates who will make health care decisions for people unable to do so
Epitaph An inscription on a grave marker or monument
Eulogy A composition or speech that praises someone; often delivered at a funeral or memorial service
Full funeral services All the professional services provided by funeral directors
Hospice care An approach to caring for terminally ill patients that maximizes the quality of life and allows death with dignity
Indirect (passive) euthanasia Allowing people to die without the use of life-sustaining procedures
Living will A legal document that requires physicians or family members to carry out a person's wishes to die naturally, without receiving sustaining treatments
Mausoleum An above-ground structure, which frequently resembles a small stone house, into which caskets can be placed for dispositon
Created by: mcallahan2