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Chapters 9-12

Atheroscelrosis Buildup of plaque on the inner walls of arteries
Cardiac muscle Specialized muscle tissue that forms the middle (muscular) layer of the heart wall
Cerebrovascular occlusions Blockages to arteries supplying blood to the cerebral cortex of the brain; strokes
Computed axial tomography (CT) scan An x-ray procedure designed to illustrate structures within the body that would not normally be seen through conventional x-ray procedures
Congestive heart failure Inability of the heart to pump out all the blood that returns to it; can lead to dangerous fluid accumulations in veins, lungs, and kidneys
Coronary arteries Vessels that supply oxygenated blood to heart muscle tissues
Coronary artery bypass surgery Surgical procedure designed to improve blood flow to the heart by providing new routes for blood to take around points of blockages
Diastolic pressure Blood pressure against blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes
High density lipoprotein (HDL) The type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol from the bloodstream to the liver, where it is eventually removed from the body; high levels HDL are related to a reduction in heart disease
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) The type of lipoprotein that transports the largest amount of cholesterol in the bloodstream; high levels of LDL are related to heart disease
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan An imaging procedure that uses a powerful magnet to generate images of body tissues
Murmur An atypical heart sound that suggests a backwashing of blood into a chamber of the heart from which it has just left
Myocardial infarction Heart attack; the death of part of the heart muscle as a result of a blockage in one of the coronary arteries
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) Any of a group of procedures used to treat patients suffering from an obstruction in an artery; typically involves inserting a slender balloon-tipped tube into an artery of the heart
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) Atherosclerotic blockages that occur in arteries that supply blood to the legs and arms
Retinal hemorrhage Uncontrolled bleeding from arteries within the eye's retina
Rheumatic heart disease Chronic damage to the heart (especially heart valves) resulting from a streptococcal infection within the heart; a complication associated with rheumatic fever
Salt sensitive Term used to describe people whose bodies overreact to the presence of sodium by retaining fluid and thus experience an increase in blood pressure
Stent A device inserted inside a coronary artery during a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to prevent the artery from narrowing at that site
Systolic pressure Blood pressure against blood vessels walls when the heart contracts
Thorax The chest; portion of the torso above the diaphragm and within the rib cage
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) Strokelike symptoms caused by temporary spasm of cerebral blood vessels
Alzheimer's disease Gradual development of memory loss, confusion, and loss of reasoning; eventually leads to total intellectual incapacitation, brain degeneration, and death
Autoimmune An immune response against the tissues of a person's own body
Benign Noncancerous; localized nonmalignant tumors contained within a fibrous membrane
Chemoprevention Cancer prevention using food, food supplements, and medications thought to bolster the immune system and reduce the damage by carcinogens
Colonoscopy Examination of the entire length of the colon, using a flexible fiber-optic scope to inspect the structure's inner lining
Fistula An open pathway between the gastrointestinal wall and other internal organs; often caused by Crohn's disease
Gail score A numerical expression of the risk of developing invasive breast cancer, based on several variable such as age at first menstrual period, age at first live birth, results of biopsies, family history. 1.66% reflects high level of risk
Gait Pattern of walking
Genetic predisposition An inherited tendency to develop a disease process if necessary environmental factors exist
In vitro Outside the living body, in an artificial environment
Insulin A pancreatic hormone required by the body for the effective metabolism of glucose (blood sugar)
Metastasis The spread of cancerous cells from their site of origin to other areas of the body
Oncogenes Faulty regulatory genes that are believed to activate the development of cancer
Pap test A cancer screening procedure in which cells are removed from the cervix and examined for precancerous changes
Prophylactic mastectomy Surgical removal of the breast to prevent breast cancer in women who are at high risk of developing the disease
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test A blood test used to identify prostate-specific antigen, an early indicator that the immune system has recognized and mounted a defense against prostate cancer
Proto-onocogenes Normal regulatory genes that may become oncogenes
Regulatory genes Genes that control cell specialization, replication, DNA repair, and tumor suppression
Sclerotic changes Thickening or hardening of tissues
Sigmoidoscopy Examination of the sigmoid colon (lowest section of the large intestine), using a short, flexible fiber-optic scope
Tumor Mass of cells; may be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign)
Acquired immunity (AI) A form of immunity resulting from exposure to foreign protein (most often wild, weakened, or killed pathogenic organisms)
Acute rhinitis The common cold; the sudden onset of nasal inflammation
Agent The casual pathogen of a particular disease
Antibodies Chemical compounds produced by the body's immune system to destroy antigens and their toxins
Artificially acquired immunity (AAI) A type of acquired immunity resulting from the body's response to pathogens introduced into the body through immunizations
Cell-mediated immunity Immunity provided principally by the immune system's T cells, both working alone and in combination with highly specialized B cells; also called T cell-mediated immunity
Chlamydia The most prevalent sexually transmitted disease; caused by an nongonococcal bacterium
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) An illness that causes sever exhaustion, fatigue, aches, and depression; mostly affects women in their 40s and 50s
Epidemic A highly significant increase in the number of cases of an infectious illness existing within the same time period in a given geographical area
Human papillomavirus (HPV) Sexually transmitted viruses, some of which are capable of causing precancerous changes in the cervix; causative agent for genital warts
Humoral immunity Immunity responsible for the production of critically important immune system elements known as antibodies; also called B cell-mediated immunity
Immune system The system of cellular and chemical elements that protects the body from invading pathogens, foreign protein, and abnormal cells
Lyme disease A bacterial infection transmitted by deer ticks
Mononucleosis (mono) A viral infection characterized by weakness, fatigue, swollen glands, sore throat, and lowgrade fever
Naturally acquired immunity (NAI) A type of acquired immunity resulting from the body's response to naturally occurring pathogens
Pandemic An epidemic that has crossed national boundaries, thus achieving regional or international status (HIV/AIDS is a pandemic)
Passively acquired immunity (PAI) A temporary immunity achieved by providing antibodies to a person exposed to a particular pathogen
Pathogen A disease-causing agent
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) An acute or chronic infection of the peritoneum or lining of the abdominopelvic cavity and fallopian tubes; associated with a variety of symptoms or none at all and a potential cause of sterility
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum, or lining of the abdominopelvic cavity
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Infectious diseases that are spread primarily through intimate sexual contact
Shingles Painful fluid-filled skin eruptions along with underlying sensory nerve pathways-due to reactivation of oncesequestered herpes zoster (chicken pox) viruses
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) A potentially fatal condition caused by the proliferation of certain bacteria in the vagina that enter the general blood circulation
Urethra The passageway through which urine leaves the urinary bladder
Virulent Capable of causing disease
Anal intercourse A sexual act in which the erect penis is inserted into the rectum of a partner
Anovulatory Not ovulating
Biological sexulaity Male and female aspects of sexuality
Cohabitation Sharing of a residence by two unrelated, unmarried people; living together
Coitus Penile-vaginal intercourse
Corpus luteum Cellular remnant of the graafian follicle after the release of an ovum
Cunnilingus Oral stimulation of the vulva or clitoris
Dysmenorrhea Abdominal pain caused by muscular cramping during the menstrual cycle
Erection The engorgement of erectile tissue with blood; characteristic of the penis, clitoris, nipples, labia minora, and scrotum
Erotic dreams Dreams whose content elicits a sexual response
Excitement stage Initial arousal stage of the sexual response pattern
Fellatio Oral stimulation of the penis
Femininity Behavioral expressions traditionally observed in females
Flaccid Nonerect; the state of erectile tissue when vasocongestion is not occurring
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) A gonadotropic hormone required for initial development of ova (in the female) and sperm (in the male)
Foreplay Activities, often involving touching and caressing, that prepare individuals for sexual intercourse
Gender General term reflecting a biological basis of sexuality; the male gender or the female gender
Gender adoption Lengthy process of learning the behavior that is traditional for one's gender
Gender identification Achievement of a personally satisfying interpretation of one's masculinity or femininity
Gender identity Recognition of one's gender
Gender preference Emotional and intellectual acceptance of one's own gender
Gonads Male or female sex glands; testes produce sperm and ovaries produce eggs
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Medically administered estrogen and progestin to replace hormones lost as the result of menopause
Hot flashes Unpleasant, temporary feelings of warmth experienced by women during and after menopause, caused by blood vessel dilation
Infatuation A relatively temporary, intensely romantic attraction to another person
Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) A gonadotropic hormone of the male required for the production of testosterone
Intimacy Any close, mutual, verbal, or nonverbal behavior within a relationship
Luteinizing hormone (LH) A gonadotropic hormone of the female required for fullest development and release of ova; ovulating hormone
Masculinity Behavioral expressions traditionally observed in males
Masturbation Self-stimulation of the genitals
Menarche Time of a female's first menstrual cycle
Menopause Decline and eventual cessation of hormone production by the female reproductive system
Monogamous Paired relationship with one partner
Multiorgasmic capacity Potential to have several orgasms within a single period of sexual arousal
Nocturnal emission Ejaculation that occurs during sleep; "wet dream"
Orgasmic platform Expanded outer third of the vagina that grips the penis during the plateau phase of the sexual response pattern
Orgasmic stage Third stage of the sexual response pattern; the stage during which neuromuscular tension is released
Ovulation The release of a mature egg from the ovary
Plateau stage Second stage of the sexual response pattern; a leveling off of arousal immediately before orgasm
Platonic Close association between two people that does not include a sexual relationship
Procreation Reproduction
Psychosocial sexuality Masculine and feminine aspects of sexuality
Puberty Achievement of reproductive ability
Refractory phase That portion of the male's resolution stage during which sexual arousal cannot occur
Resolution stage Fourth stage of the sexual response pattern; the return of the body to a preexcitement state
Semen Secretion containing sperm and nutrients discharged from the urethra at ejaculation
Sex flush The reddish skin response that results from increasing sexual arousal
Sexual fantasies Fantasies with sexual themes; sexual daydreams or imaginary events
Sexuality The quality of being sexual; can be viewed from many biological and psychological perspectives
Smegma Cellular discharge that can accumulate beneath the clitoral hood and the foreskin of the uncircumcised penis
Spermatogenesis Process of sperm production
Vasectomy Surgical procedure in which the vas deferens are cut to prevent the passage of sperm from the testicles; the most common form of male sterilization
Created by: mcallahan2