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Chapters 5-8

QuestionAnswer
Amino acids The building blocks of protein; can be manufactured by the body or obtained from dietary sources
Antioxidants Substances that may prevent cancer by interacting with and stabilizing unstable molecules known as free radicals
Calories Units of heat (energy); 1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree C
Carbohydrates The body's primary sources of energy for all body functioning; chemical compounds including sugar, starches, and dietary fibers
Cholesterol A primary form of fat found in the blood; lipid material manufactured within the body and derived from dietary sources
Cruciferous vegetables Vegetables, such as broccoli, whose plants have flowers with four leaves in the pattern of a cross
Dehydration Abnormal depletion of fluids from the body; severe dehydration can be fatal
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Measures that refer to three types of reference values: Estimated Average Requirement, Recommended Dietary Allowance, and Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Enriched Foods that have been resupplied with some of the nutritional elements (B vitamins and iron) removed during processing
Enzymes Organic substances that control the rate of physiological reactions but are not themselves altered in the process
Fat density The percentage of a food's total calories that are derived from fat; above 30 percent is considered a high fat density
Fiber Plant material that cannot be digested; found in cereal, fruits, and vegetables
Food additives Chemical compounds intentionally added to the food supply to change some aspect of the food, such as its color or texture
Food allergy A reaction in which the immune system attacks an otherwise harmless food or ingredient; allergic reactions can range from mildly to unpleasant to life threatening
Food intolerance An adverse reaction to a specific food that does not involve the immune system; usually caused by an enzyme deficiency
Functional foods Foods capable of contributing to the improvement/prevention of specific health problems
Health claims Statements authorized by the FDA as having scientific proof of claims that a food, nutrient, or dietary supplement has an effect on a health-related condition
Nutrient-dense food Foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and comparatively few calories
Nutrients Elements in foods that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes
Ovolactovegetarian Diet A diet that excludes all meat but does not include the consumption of eggs and dairy products
Pesco-vegetarian diet A vegetarian diet that includes fish, dairy products, and eggs along with plant foods
Phytochemicals Physiologically active components of foods believed to deactivate carcinogens and to function as antioxidants
Probiotics Living bacteria ("good bugs") that help prevent disease and strengthen the immune system
Proteins Compounds composed of chains of amino acids; primary components of muscle and connective tissue
Satiety The feeling of no longer being hungry; a diminished desire to eat
Saturated fats Fats that promote cholesterol formation; they are in solid form at room temperature; primarily animal fats
Trace elements Minerals whose presence in the body occurs in very small amounts; micronutrient elements
Vegan vegetarian diet A vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy products
Vitamins Organic compounds that facilitate the action of enzymes
Adaptive thermogenesis The physiological response of the body to adjust its metabolic rate to the presence of food
Adipose tissue Tissue made up of fibrous strands around which specialized cells designed to store liquefied fat are arranged
Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder in which the individual weighs less than 85% of the expected weight for his/her age, gender, and height. Has an intense fear of gaining weight. In females, ceases to menstruate for at least 3 consecutive months
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) The amount of energy, expressed in calories, that the body requires to maintain basic functions
Binge eating disorder An eating disorder formerly referred to as compulsive overeating disorder; binge eaters use food to cope in the same way that bulimics do and also feel out of control, but do not engage in compensatory purging behavior
Bod Pod Body composition system used to measure body fat through air displacement
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) A secret preoccupation with an imagined or slight flaw in one's appearance
Body image One's subjective perception of how one's body appears to oneself and others
Body mass index (BMI) A mathematical calculation based on weight and height; used to determine desirable body weight
Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder in which individuals engage in episodes of bingeing, consuming unusually large amounts of food and feeling out of control, and engaging in some compensatory purging behavior to eliminate the food
Calipers A device used to measure the thickness of a skin fold from which percentage of body fat can be estimated
Caloric balance Caloric intake and caloric expenditure are equal and body weight remains constant
Catabolism The metabolic process of breaking down tissue for the purpose of converting it to energy
Desirable weight The weight range deemed appropriate for people, taking into consideration gender, age, and frame size
Healthy body weight Body weight within a weight range appropriate for a person with and acceptable waist-to-hip ratio
Hypothyroidism A condition in which the thyroid gland produces an insufficient amount of the hormone thyroxin
Negative caloric balance Caloric intake is less than caloric expenditure, resulting in weight loss
Obesity A condition in which a person's body weight is 20% or more above desirable weight as determined by standard height/weight charts
Overweight A condition in which a person's excess fat accumulation results in a body weight that exceeds desirable weight by 1-19 percent
Phynylpropanolamine An active chemical compound still found in some over-the-counter diet products and associated with increased risk of stroke
Positive caloric balance Caloric intake greater than caloric expenditure, resulting in weight gain
Purging Using vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications, or means such as excessive exercise or fasting, to eliminate food
Set point A genetically programmed range of body weight, beyond which a persons finds it difficult to gain or lose additional weight
Thermic effect of food (TEF) The amount of energy our bodies require for the digestion, absorption, and transportation of food
Underweight A condition in which the body is below the desirable weight
Absorption The passage of nutrients or alcohol through the walls of the stomach or the intestinal tract into the bloodstream
Abuse Any use of a drug in a way that is detrimental to health
Acute alcohol intoxication A potentially fatal elevation of BAC, often resulting from heavy, rapid consumption of alcohol
Additive effect The combined (but not exaggerated) effect produced by the concurrent use of two or more drugs
Alcohol abuse Patterns of alcohol use that create problems for the drinker's school and job performance, other responsibilities, and interpersonal relationships. Also called problem drinking
Alcohol dependence Tolerance, withdrawal, and a pattern of compulsive use of alcohol. A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factor influencing its development. Also called alcoholism
Amotivational syndrome Behavioral pattern characterized by lack of interest in productive activities
Antagonistic effect Effect produced when one drug reduces or offsets the effects of a second drug
Asphyxiation Death resulting from lack of oxygen to the brain
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Above normal rate of physical movement; often accompanied by an inability to concentrate well on a specified task; also called hyperactivity
Axon The portion of a neuron that conducts electrical impulses to the dendrites of adjacent neurons, neurons typically have one axon
Binge drinking Five or more drinks on the same occasion (at the same time or within a span of a couple of hours) on at least 1 day in the last 2-week period
Blackout A temporary state of amnesia experienced by a drinker; an inability to remember events that occurred during a period of alcohol use including things that person said or did during that time
Blood alcohol concentration The percentage of alcohol in a measured quantity of blood; BACs can be determined directly through the analysis of a blood sample or indirectly through the analysis of exhaled air
Cold turkey Immediate, total discontinuation of use of a drug; associated withdrawal discomfort
Cross-tolerance Transfer of tolerance from one drug to another within the same general category
Current use At least one drink in the past 30 days
Dependence A physical or psychological need to continue using a drug
Distillation The process of heating an alcohol solution and collecting its vapors into a more concentrated solution
Dose-response curve The size of the effect of a drug on the body related to the amount of the drug administered
Drug Any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, that by its chemical or physical nature alters structure or function in the living organism
FDA Schedule 1 A list of drugs that have a high potential for abuse but no medical use
Fermentation A chemical process whereby plant products are converted into alcohol by the action of yeast cells on carbohydrate materials
Fetal alcohol syndrome Characteristic birth defects noted in the children of some women who consume alcohol during their pregnancies
Gateway drug An easily obtainable legal or illegal drug that represents a user's first experience with a mind-altering drug
Habituation The development of psychological dependence on a drug after a period of use
Hallucinogens Psychoactive drugs capable of producing hallucinations (distortions of reality)
Inhalants Psychoactive drugs that enter the body through inhalation
Inhibitions Inner controls that prevent a person from engaging in certain types of behavior
Intervention An organized process that involves encouraging a chemically addicted individual to enter into drug treatment; usually coordinated by family and friends along with a mental health professional
Intoxication Dysfunctional and disruptive changes in physiological and psychological functioning, mood, and cognitive processes resulting from the consumption of a psychoactive substance
Metabolism The chemical process by which substances are broken down or synthesized in living organism to provide energy for life
Metabolite A breakdown product of a drug
Misuse Inappropriate use of drugs intended to be medications
Narcolepsy A sleep disorder in which a person has a recurrent, overwhelming, and uncontrollable desire to sleep
Narcotics Opiates; psychoactive drugs derived from the Oriental poppy plant. Narcotics relieve pain and induce sleep
Neuron/dendrite The portion of a neuron that receives electrical stimuli from adjacent neurons; neurons typically have several such branches or extensions
Oxidation The process that removes alcohol from the bloodstream
Potentiated effect Phenomenon whereby the use of one drug intensifies the effect of a second drug
Problem drinking An alcohol use pattern in which a drinker's behavior creates personal difficulties or difficulties for other people. Also called alcohol abuse
Process addictions Addictions in which people compulsively engage in behavior such as gambling, shopping, gaming, or sexual activity to such an extreme degree that these addictions can cause serious financial, emotional, social, and health problems similar to drug addiction
Psychoactive drug Any substance capable of altering feelings, moods, or perceptions
Psychological dependence Craving a drug for emotional reasons and to maintain a sense of well-being; also called habituation
Shock Profound collapse of many vital body functions; evident during acute alcohol intoxication and other health emergencies
Stimulants Psychoactive drugs that stimulate the function of the central nervous system
Synapse The location at which an electrical impulse from one neuron is transmitted to an adjacent neuron; also referred to as a synaptic junction
Synergistic drug effect Heightened, exaggerated effect produced by the concurrent use of two or more drugs
Threshold dose The least amount of a drug to have an observable effect on the body
Tolerance An acquired reaction to a drug; continued intake of the same dose has diminished effects
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome A syndrome that results from vitamin B 1 deficiency, often the results of alcoholism. Symptoms include impaired short-term memory, psychosis, impaired coordination, and abnormal eye movements
Withdrawal illness Uncomfortable, perhaps toxic response to the body as it attempts to maintain homeostasis in the absence of a drug; also called abstinence syndrome
Zero-tolerance laws Laws that severely restrict the right to operate motor vehicles for underage drinkers who have been convicted of driving under any influence
Alveoli Think, saclike terminal ends of the airways; the sites at which gases are exchanged between the blood and lungs
Angina Pectoris Chest pain that results from impaired blood supply to the heart muscle
Beta endorphins Mood enhancing, pain-reducing, opiatelike chemicals produced within the smoker's body in response to the presence
Bolus theory A theory of nicotine addiction based on the body's response to the bolus (ball) of nicotine delivered to the brain with each inhalation of cigarette smoke.
Carbon monoxide (CO) A chemical compound that can "inactivate" red blood cells
Carcinogens Environmental agents, including chemical compounds within cigarette smoke, that stimulate the development of cancerous changes within cells
Cardiac arrest Immediate death resulting from a sudden change in the rhythm of the heart causing loss of heart function
Chronic bronchitis Persistent inflammation and infection of the smaller airways within the lungs
Cilia Small, hairlike structures that extend from cells that line the air passages
Dependence A physical or psychological need to continue the use of a drug
Dissonance A feeling of uncertainty that occurs when a person believes two equally attractive but opposite ideas
Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy Pregnancy resulting from the implantation of the fertilized ovum within the inner wall of the fallopian tube
Embolism A potentially fatal condition in which a circulating blood clot lodges in a smaller vessel
Environmental tobacco smoke Tobacco smoke, regardless of its source, that stays within a common source of air
Euphoria A complex interplay of physical and emotional states that suggest heightened energy, enhanced mood, and greater resistance to pain and discomfort
Gaseous phase The portion of the tobacco smoke containing carbon monoxide and many other physiologically active gaseous compounds
Hypoxia Oxygenation deprivation at the cellular level
Mainstream smoke Smoke inhaled and then exhaled by a smoker
Modeling The process of adopting the behavioral patterns of a person one admires or has bonds with
Mucus Clear, sticky material produced by specialized cells within the mucous membranes of the body; mucus traps much of the suspended particulate matter within tobacco smoke
Myocardial infarction Heart attack; the death of heart muscle as a result of a blockage in one of the coronary arteries
Nicotine A physiologically active, dependence-producing drug found in tobacco
Particulate phase The portion of the tobacco smoke composed of small suspended particles
Periodontal disease Destruction of soft tissue and bone that surround the teeth
Platelet Adhesiveness The tendency of platelets to clump together, thus enhancing the speed at which blood clots
Pulmonary emphysema An irreversible disease process in which the alveoli are destroyed
Sidestream smoke Smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar
Tar A chemically rich, syrupy, blackish-brown material obtained from the particulate matter within cigarette smoke when nicotine and water are removed
Titration The particular level of a drug within the body; adjusting the level of nicotine by adjusting the rate of smoking
Created by: mcallahan2