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Chapter 1-4

QuestionAnswer
Empowerment The nurturing of an individual's or group's ability to be responsible for their own health and well being.
Health Ability to use the intrinsic/extrinsic resources related to each dimension of holistic makeup to participate in the role-related activities that contribute to growth and development,feel a sense of well-being as we evaluate our progress through life.
Health promotion A movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in lengthening their lives, reducing the incidence of illness, and feeling better
High-risk health behavior A behavioral pattern, such as smoking, associated with a high risk of developing a chronic illness
Holistic health A view of health in terms of its physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational makeup
Morbidity Pertaining to illness and disease
Mortality Pertaining to death
Non-traditional aged students Term used by colleges/universities for students, for whatever reason, are pursuing undergraduate work at an age other than traditional college years (18-24)
Preventive or prospective medicine Physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered
Risk factor A biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking associated with chronic illness
Traditional-age students College students between the ages of 18-24
Wellness A process intended to aid individuals in unlocking their full potential through the development of an overall wellness lifestyle
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Inability to concentrate well on a specified task; often accompanied by above-normal movement
Basic needs Deficiency needs that are viewed as essential and fundamental, including physiological, safety and security, belonging and love, and esteem needs
Biopsychological model A model that addresses how biological, psychological, and social factors interact and affect psychological health
Bipolar disorder A mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of depression and mania
Clinical depression A psychological disorder in which individuals experience lack of motivation, decreased energy level, fatigue, social withdrawl, sleep/appetite disturbance, diminished sex drive, feelings of worthlessness, and despair
Emotional Intelligence Ability to understand others and act wisely in human relations and measure how well one knows one's emotions, manages one's emotions, motivates oneself, and recognizes emotions in others, and handles relationships
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) An anxiety disorder that involves experiencing intense and nonspecific anxiety for at least 6 months, in which the intensity and frequency of worry is excessive and out of proportion to the situation
Learned helplessness A theory of motivation explaining how individuals can learn to feel powerless, trapped, and defeated
Learned optimism An attribution style regarding permanence, pervasiveness, and personalization; how people explain both positive and negative events in their lives, accounting for success and failure
Mania An extremely excitable state characterized by excessive energy, racing thoughts, impulsive and/or reckless behavior, irritability, and being prone to distraction
Metaneeds Secondary concerns, such as spirituality, creativity, curiosity, beauty, philosophy, and justice, that can be addressed only after the basic needs are met
Nature The innate factors that genetically determine personality traits
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that transfer electrical impulses across the synapses between nerve cells
Nurture The effects that the environment, people, and external factors have on personality
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) An anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses causing a great deal of distress) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing anxiety or stress that is associated with the obsessive thoughts)
Panic disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks, in which individuals experience severe physical symptoms. These episodes cam seemingly occur "out of the blue" or because of some trigger and can last for a few minutes or for hours
Permanence The first dimension of learned optimism, related to whether certain events are perceived as temporary or long lasting
Personalization The third dimension of learned optimism, related to whether an individual takes things personally or is more balanced in accepting responsibility for positive and negative events
Pervasiveness The second dimension of learned optimism, related to whether events are perceived as specific or general
Psychological health Broadly based concept pertaining to cognitive functioning in conjunction with the way people express their emotions; cope with stress, adversity, and success; and adapt to changes in themselves and their environment
Schizophrenia One of the most severe mental disorders, characterized by profound distortions in one's thought processes, emotions, perceptions, and behavior. Symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and maintaining a rigid posture
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Type of depression that develops in relation to the changes in the seasons
Self-actualization The highest level of psychological health, at which one reaches his or her highest potential and values truth, beauty, goodness, faith, love, humor, and ingenity
Self-concept An individual's internal picture of himself or herself; the way one sees oneself
Self-esteem An individual's sense of pride, self-respect, value, and worth
Social phobia A phobia characterized by feelings of extreme dread and embarrassment in situations in which public speaking or social interaction is involved
alarm stage The first stage of the stress response, involving physiological, involuntary changes that are controlled by the hormonal and the nervous systems; the fight or flight response is activated in this stage
Chronic stress Remaining at a high level of physiological arousal for an extended period of time; it can also occur when an individual is not able to immediately react to a real or perceived threat
Circadian rhythms The internal, biological clock that helps coordinate physiological processes with the 24-hour light/dark cycle
Distress Stress that diminishes the quality of life; commonly associated with disease, illness, and maladaptation
Eustress Stress that enhances the quality of life
Exhaustion stage The point at which the physical and the psychological resources used to deal with stress have been depleted
Fight or flight response The physiological response to a stressor that prepares the body for confrontation or avoidance
General adaptation syndrome (GAS) Sequenced physiological responses to the presence of a stressor, involving the alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages of the stress response
Intrapsychic stressors Our internal worries, self-criticisms, and negative self-talk
Perfectionism A tendency to expect perfection in everything one does, with little tolerance for mistakes
Procrastination A tendency to put off completing tasks until some later time, sometimes resulting in increased stress
Resistance stage The second stage of the stress response during which the body attempts to reestablish its equilibrium or internal balance
Self-fulfilling prophecy The tendency to make something more likely to happen as a result of one's own expectations and attitudes
Stress The physiological and psychological state of disruption caused by the presence of an unanticipated, disruptive, or stimulating event
Stress response The physiological and psychological responses to positive or negative events that are disruptive, unexpected, or stimulating
Stressors Factors or events, real or imagined, that elicit a state of stress
Test anxiety A form of performance anxiety that generates extreme feelings of distress in exam situations
Yerkes-Dodson Law A bell-shaped curve demonstrating that there is an optimum level of stress for peak performance; this law states that too little or too much stress is not helpful, whereas a moderate level of stress is positive and beneficial
Aerobic energy production The body's means of energy production when the respiratory and circulatory systems are able to process and transport a sufficient amount of oxygen to muscle cells
Amenorrhea The absence of menstruation
Anabolic steroids Drugs that function like testosterone to produce increases in muscle mass, strength, endurance, and aggressiveness
Anaerobic energy production The body's means of energy production when the necessary amount of oxygen is not available
Ballistic stretching A "bouncing" form of stretching in which a muscle group is lengthened repetitively to produce multiple quick, forceful stretches
Cardiorespiratory endurance The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen required by muscle cells so that they can contract over a period of time
Duration The length of time one needs to exercise at the THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect
Ergogenic aids Supplements that are taken to improve athletic performance
Exercise A subcategory of physical activity; it is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive in the sense that an improvement or maintenance of physical fitness is an objective
Flexibility The ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion
Frequency The number of exercise sessions per week; for aerobic fitness, 3-5 days are recommended
Intensity The level of effort put into an activity
Isokinetic exercises Muscular strength training exercises in which machines are used to provide variable resistances throughout the full range of motion at a fixed speed
Isometric exercises Muscular strength training exercises in which the resistance is so great that the object cannot be moved
Isotonic resistance exercises Muscular strength training exercises in which traditional barbells and dumbbells with fixed resistances are used
Muscular endurance The aspect of muscular fitness that deals with the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time
Muscular fitness The ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes muscular strength and muscular endurance
Muscular strength The component of physical fitness that deals with the ability to contract skeletal muscles to a maximal level; the maximal force that a muscle can exert
Osteoarthritis Arthritis that develops with age; largely caused by weight bearing and deterioration of the joints
Osteoporosis A decrease in bone mass that leads to increased incidence of fracture, primarily in postmenopausal women
Overload principle The principle whereby a person exercises at a level above which he or she is normally accustomed to
Physical activity Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure
Physical fitness A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
Sarcopenia A reduction in the size of the muscle fibers, related to the aging process
Static stretching The slow lengthening of a muscle group to an extended stretch; followed by holding the extended position for 15-60 seconds
Target heart rate (THR) The number of times per minute the heart must contract to produce a training effect
Created by: mcallahan2