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Health Final

25

QuestionAnswer
What is a calorie energy in food
45 essential nutrients proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water
3 essentail nutrients provide energy fat= 9 cal protein= 4 cal carbs= 4 cal
Proteins are the basis of body structure
Proteins form.. muscle and bone parts of blood, enzymes, sme hornones, cell membranes
building blocks of protein are amino acids
Recommended protein intake .8 grams per kilogram of body weight 10-35% of total daily calorie intake
Fats are essential in small amounts most concentrated source of energy
Fats can.. be stored as usable energy, insulation and cushion to body organs, absorb fat-soluble vitamins
2 types of fats - essential linleic acid alpha-linolenic acid
Types and sources of fats triglycerides unsaturated saturated
Triglycerides glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids Animal fats are primarily made of triglycerides
Unsaturated mostly vegetable sources Monounsaturated-olive oil, nuts Polyunsaturated-salmon
Saturated most likely animal sources
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) = good cholesterol
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) = bad cholesterol
Trans fats (and saturated fats?) raise LDL, linked to heart disease and certain toes of cancer
monounsaturated fats and omega-3 fatty acids can be beneficial to health
Recommended fat intake Adult men need 17 grams per day of linoleic acid and 1.6 grams of alpha-linolenic acid Adult women need 12 grams per day of linoleic acid and 1.1 grams of alpha-linolenic acid AMDR for total daily fat is 20-35% of daily calories
Carbohydrate are An Ideal Source of Energy
Carbohydrates .. supply energy for body cells
2 groups of carbs simple carbs complex carbs
Simple carbs fruit, sugar, honey, malt, and milk
Complex carbs Starches and most dietary fiber Grains – wheat, rye, rice, oats, barley, and millet Legumes – dry beans, peas, and lentils Tubers – potatoes and yams
Recommended Carbohydrate Intake 130 grams needed to meet the body’s requirements for essential carbohydrates 45-65% of total daily calories Focus on consuming a variety of foods rich in complex carbohydrates, especially whole grains
Types of fiber Dietary fiber Functional Fiber Total fiber soluble fiber insoluble fiber
Dietary fiber: Nondigestible carbohydrates (and lignin) that are naturally present in some plants
Functional fiber : Nondigestible carbohydrate that has been isolated or synthesized in a lab and added to food as dietary supplement
Total fiber : the sum of both
Sources of fiber All plant substances
Recommended fiber intake 38 grams for adult men 25 grams for adult women Needs to come from foods, not supplements
Vitamins are Organic Mironutrients
Vitamins... organic (carbon-containing) substances required in small amounts to regulate various processes within living cells
Humans need need how many vitamins 13 vitamins
4 fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K
9 water soluble vitamins: C and the B-complex vitamins
Sources of vitamins Human body does not manufacture most vitamins Abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains
Vitamin A FOOD: sweet potato, carrots, milk HELP: sight
Vit B FOOD: fish, eggs, whole grain HELP: folate- nerve development in fetus
Vit C FOOD: citrus, oranges, limes, lemon, baked potato, GLV HELP: energy metabolism, scurvy
Vit D FOOD: milk, cheese, sun HELP: bone health, teeth structure- fluoride and calcium
Vit K FOOD: banana, GLV HELP: blood clotting
Minerals are Inorganic Micronutrients
Minerals… inorganic (non-carbon-containing) compounds that help regulate body functions, aid in growth, maintain body tissues, and help release energy
how many essential minerals are there 17 essential minerals
Major minerals Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and chloride
Trace minerals Copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc
Antioxidants Protect against damage by free radicals
Foods that have antioxidants Vitamins C & E, selenium, carotenoids
Phytochemicals are Substances that may help prevent chronic disease
Substances that may help prevent chronic disease Soy foods Sulforaphane (found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli) Allyl sulfides (found in garlic and onions
Limit intake of saturated fatty acids to ... less than 7% of total calories
Limit cholesterol to l ess than 300 milligrams per day (200 mg for people at high risk for CVD or diabetes)
Limit trans fatty acids from natural sources to less than 0.5% of calories
Avoid any trans-fatty acids from hydrogenation
Types of vegetarian diets Vegans Lacto-vegetarians Lacto-ovo-vegetarians Partial vegetarians Semivegetarians Pescovegetarians
A food plan for vegetarians Vitamin B-12 Vitamin D Calcium
Organic foods Must meet limits on pesticide residues and other environmental contaminants Must meet strict USDA guidelines
Created by: julshock