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CHAPTER 10

INFECTION CONTROL

QuestionAnswer
INFECTION CONTROL TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
INTERNAL DISEASE ANY DISEASE CAUSED BY THE GROWTH OF PATHOGENS
PATHOGENS DISEASE CAUSING MICROORGANISMS (GERMS) IN THE BODY
TWO TYPES OF INFECTION GENERALIZED, SYSTEMIC, OR LOCALIZED
GENERALIZED INFECTIONS SIGNS & SYMPTOMS COMMONLY EXPERIENCE ARE HEADACHES, FEVER, FATIGUE, VOMITTING, DIARRHEA, AND AN INCREASE PULSE AND RESPIRATION; AFFECTS THE WHOLE BODY
LOCALIZED INFECTIONS THE AREA WILL NOT BE RED, SWOLLEN, WARM TO THE TOUCH, AND PAINFUL. THERE MIGHT BE SOME DRAINAGE
MICROORGANISMS VERY SMALL, 1 CELL LIVING PLANTS OR ANIMALS; THEY CAN ONLY BE SEEN UNDER A MICROSCOPE
MICROBIOLOGY STUDY OF SMALL LIFE
GERM THEORY SPECIFIC MICROORGANISM, CALLED BACTERIA, ARE THE CAUSE OF SPECIFIC DISEASE IN BOTH HUMANS AND ANIMALS
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE A DISEASE THAT MAY BE TRASMITTED EITHER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM ONE INDIVIDUAL TO ANOTHER) MIGHT BE THE CONTIMINATED HANDS OF DOCTORS AND NURSES
CONTAIMINATED PRESENCE OF INFECTIOUS MATERIAL
SURGICAL SESPTIC TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT CONTAMINATION OF THE WOUND AND OPERATIVE SITE
NORMAL FLORA RESIDE IN PARTICULAR ENVIRONMENT ON OR IN THE BODY EX:SKIN, VAGINA, AND INTESTINES
ESCHERICHIA COLI (E-COLI) AIDS IN THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS IN THE COLON; NONPATHOGEN; E-COLI CAN ALSO BE A PATHOGEN AND CREATE AN INFECTION WHEN IT INVADES AN AREA OF THE BODY WHERE IT IS NOT A PART OF THE NORMAL FLORA, EX BLOOD/URINE
IMMUNE RESPONSE IS A SPECIFIC DEFENSE USED BY THE BODY TO FIGHT INFECTION AND DISEASE BY PRODUCING ANTIBODIES (PROTECTIVE PROTEINS THAT COMBAT PATHOGENS)
ANTIBIOTIC MEDICATIONS CAPABLE OF INHIBITING THE GROWTH OF OR DESTROYING MICROORGANISMS`
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS INFECTION THAT OCCURS DUE TO THE WEAKEND PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF THE BODY
AEROBIC NEEDS OXYGEN TO LIVE
ANAEROBIC DOESN'T NEED OXYGEN TO LIVE
HOSTS LIVING PLANTS OR ANIMALS FROM WHICH MICROORGANISMS DERIVE NOURISHMENT
PARASITE AN ORGANISM THAT NOURISHES ITSELF AT THE EXPENSE OF OTHER LIVING THINGS AND CAUSES THEM DAMAGE
TYPES OF MICROBES BACTERIA, VIRUSES, FUNGI, RICKETTSIA, AND PROTOZOA
BACTERIA ONE CELLED PLANTS AND CAN BE EITHER PATHOGENIC OR NONPATHOGENIC; MOST REQUIRE OXYGEN TO LIVE
COLONY MORE THAN ONE BACTERIA THAT GROWS IN ONE PLACE
VIRUSES THE SMALLEST OF THE MICROBES & CAN'T BE SEEN UNDER THE TRADITIONAL LIGHT MICROSCOPE;NEEDS A PIECE OF EQUIPMENT CALLED AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE; NOT WHOLE CELLS; THEY DEPEND ON OTHER LIVING CELLS FOR FOOD, NUTRIENTS & A MEANS OF REPRODUCTION; EX PNEUMONIA
OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR THEY CAN ONLY LIVE INSIDE ANOTHER LIVING ORGANISM
FUNGI LARGE GROUP OF SIMPLE PLANTS; 2 FORMS OF FUNGI ARE POTENTIAL PATHOGENS: YEAST-1 CELLED/MOLD-MULTICELLED PLANTS EX PENICILLIN
RICKETTSIA MUCH SMALLER THAN BACTERIA AND HAVE ROD OR SPHERICAL SHAPES;DON'T MOVE INDEPENDENTLY; STAIN AS GRAM NEGATIVE
PROTOZOA THE ONLY MICROORGANISMS THAT ARE CLASSIFIED AS ANIMALS; 1 CELL; VERY PLENITIFUL IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND RESIDE IN AND ON THE BODY
CHAIN OF INFECTION MODEL SHOWING HOW DISEASES/GERMS ARE TRANSMITTED
INFECTIOUS AGENT A PATHOGEN MUST BE PRESENT
RESERVOIR HOST MUST HAVE A PLACE TO LIVE
PORTAL OF EXIT PATHOGEN MUST BE ABLE TO ESCAPE FROM THE RESERVOIR HOSE WHERE IT HAS BEEN GROWING. EX PORTAL OF EXITS:BLOOD, URINE, FECES, BREAKS IN THE SKIN, WOUND DRAINAGE, & BODY SECRETIONS (SALVIA, MUCUS, & REPRODUCTION FLUID)
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION PATHOGEN LEAVES THE RESERVOIR HOST THROUGH THE PORTAL OF EXIT, IT MUST HAVE A WAY OF BEING TRANSMITTED TO A NEW HOST EX:AIR, FOOD, INSECTS & DIRECT CONTACT W/AN INFECTED PERSON
PORTAL OF ENTRY PATHOGEN MUST HAVE A WAY OF ENTERING THE NEW HOST EX:MOUTH, NOSTRILS & BREAKS IN SKIN
SUSCEPTIBLE HOST INDIVIDUAL WHO HAS A LARGE NUMBER OF PATHOGENS INVADING THE BODY OR DOESN'T HAVE ADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO THE PATHOGEN WIL GET THE INFECTIOUS DISEASE
NATURAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS INCLUDE cilia, tears, hydrochloric acid in the stomach, mucous memebranes of the respiratory, reproductive, & digestive systems, rise in the body temp, production of addt'l leukkocytes
Nosocomial infection refers to an infection that occurs while a patient is receiving health care
Center for Disease Control and Prevention studies causes & distribution of disease, able to formulate safety guidelines to help prevent & control the spread of infectious diseases, licensing of clinical laboratories, maintenance of labs,reference centers for microorganisms & research programs
Occupational Safety & Health Administration 1970, govern't agency, minimum heatlh & safety standards fro the workplace & to enforce those standards for the workplace; requires employees to get the Hep. B vaccines
Medical asepsis, or clean technique procedures to decrease the # and spread of pathogens in the environment. ex hand washing good personal hygiene, the cleaning of rooms between patient use, & disposal of gloves after contact w/body fluids or contaminated objects
Surgical Asepsis, or sterile technique procedures to completely eliminate the presence of pathogens from objects & areas Ex: surgical asepsis are wearing sterile caps, gowns, masks, & gloves during surgery;sterilizing and using special techniques to handle instruments to be used w/patients
What is a way of breaking the chain in the infection ________________? proper hand washing
Standard precautions practices desgined to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganism from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection in health care settings
resident flora is present all the time
transient flora are picked up in daily activities and are easily removed from the hands by frequent handwashing
Created by: 100000296951062