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Epidemiology Test 2

QuestionAnswer
diminished capacity to perform within a prescribed range disability
how is disability measured? from minimal weakness to serious paralysis
what are the 5 common measures of disability? 1. days of work lost 2. days of school missed 3. days of being confined to bed 4. cutdown days 5. days of restricted activity
what is a cut down day? you are not on a full time day
what are examples of activities with daily living? toileting, bathing, continence, dressing, feeding
an interruption, cessation or disorder of body functions, system or orgrans disease
study of cause etiology
infectious spread from person to person or animal to person; communicable disease
invaders that spread communicable disease pathogens
individuals to offspring via sperm, placenta, breast milk and vaginal fluid vertical transmission
transmision from infected host to susceptible party; can be direct or indirect horizontal transmission
what are the two types of horizontal transmission direct and indirect
viruses, bacteria, parasites; some living microoranism that is capable of producing disease pathogens
if a pathogen can enter the body and then survive and multiply, then what do we have? an infectious disease
if bacteria multiplies, the larger the number means what? the more virulent the disease
the disease evoking power of a pathogen virulence
how are disease classified? acute and chronic
what are the 3 characterisitcs of acute disease? 1. sudden onset 2. short duration 3. 2 outcomes: complete recovery or death
what are the 3 characterisitis of chronic disease? 1. slow onset 2. lengthy duration, maybe even lifelong 3. usually not life threatening, but symptoms may worsen over time
what means a disease is inflammtory? ends in itis
4 steps of progression of a disease 1. stage of susceptibility 2. stage of presymptomatic disease 3. stage of clinical disease 4. stage of recovery, disability or death
what are the two types of immunity? 1. active 2. passive
body produces its own resistance; long term active immunity
resistance produced by another person or animal passive immunity
what are the four ways of acquiring immunity? 1. active natural 2. active artificial 3. passive natural 4. passive artificial
active natural example developing or being exposed to a particular disease
active artificial example vaccination
passive natural example mother to fetus
passive artificial example injection of antibodies
what are the 5 general categories of diseases? 1. congenital/hereditary 2. allergy and inflammatory 3. degenerative 4. metabolic 5. cancer
metatstatic = ? spreading
a neoplastic state, malignancy cancer
passed down from one or both parents, may or may not be hereditary hereditary
appears at birth congenital
reaction to some antigen allergy
what is inflammation characterized by? 1. heat 2. redness 3. swelling 4. pain
due to wear and tear on the body degenerative diseases
due to dysfunction, malfunction, poor function with a gland or organ metabolic diseases
likeliehood to spread from one person to another communicability
5 means of transmisson: 1. airborne respiratory 2. intestional discharge 3. open sore/lesion 4. vector borne 5. fomite borne
airborne respirtory transmission example cold, flu, measles, small pox
intestional discharge transmission example cholera, giardia
open sore transmission example aids, small pox, herpes 1&2
vector borne transmission example rock mountain fever, lime disease, sleeping sickness
fomite borne transmission example cold, flu, mumps, measles
exampels of microscopic sources of diease bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold, yeast
animal sources of disease protozoa, metazoa, arthropods
1 cell animal soure of disease protozoa
what are the two components of viability? capacity of the disease to: 1. survive outside the host . exist ro thrive in the environment
portals of entry into the body: respiratory, oral, reproductive, intranvenis, urinary
characteristics of notifiable diseases (4) 1. started in 1961 2. cdc started 3. all about collecting and publishing data on a national and state level for notifiable diseases 4. ultimately a public health alert
what makes a disease notifiable? (3) 1. causes a serious morbidity or death 2. potential to spread 3. can be controlled with appropriate intervention
what does morbidity consist of? illness, sickness, mortality and death
who reports diseases? 1. doctors 2. dentists 3. infection control personnel
what is the chain of command for reorting a disease? 1. physician to 2. local health dept. to 3. state dept. of health 4. natl. center for health stats
what is the disease registry for? non-cimmunicable disease reporting
what is the foundation of epi? prevention and control
what are 3 key factors observed in controlling communicable diseases? 1. to remove/eliminate/contain the cause of the source 2. disrupt and block the chain of transmission 3. protect the susceptible population
how can you protect the public from a contagious disease? quarantine, isolate, sanitation, hygiene, immunization, chemoprophylaxis
the ida of sepearting sick persons from a healty population quarantine
what was the first public health measure ever used for disease control? quarantine
what 3 diseases are quarantine measures used for as designated by W.H.O. 1. cholera 2. plague 3. yellow fever
a quarantine type activity; taking extra precautions isolation
what are the 6 different types of isolation measures that are used? 1. private isolation rooms 2. seperate infection control gowns 3. masks 4. all staff must be gloved 5. hand washing 6. all contaminated equipmen and clothing properly disposed of
what are the cdc established precautions? 1. barrier methods 2. gowns if necessary, masks, eye protection, hand washing
what can cause a chronic disease? 1. genetic susceptibility 2. lifestyles 3. environmental exposures
what are examples of chronic diseases? heart disease, cancer, diabetes, COPD
how to min. chronic diseases and severity? 1. changing behavior 2. moderating environmental exposure or risk factors
Created by: taysam05