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Epi Midterm


Carrier A person who is infected with a given agent but does not have symptoms of the disease caused by the agent and who may spread the disease to others.
Case-fatality rate (ratio) The number of persons dying of a disease divided by the number of persons who have the disease.
Common source epidemic An epidemic in which one specific entity has been the primary means of transmitting the infection to the identified cases.
Contact A person or animal that has been in such association with an infected person or animal or a contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the agent.
Direct transmission Transfer of an infectious agent from an infected host or reservoir to another host without involvement of an intermediate entity.
Endemic Usual level of disease occurrence in a population of a given geographic area over a defined time period.
Epidemic Unusually high level of disease occurrence in a population of a given geographic area in the light of past experience.
Epidemic curve A plot of the distribution of cases according to time of onset of disease.
Epidemiology The study of the distribution of a disease or condition in a population and of the factors that influence that distribution.
Eradication Complete elimination of a disease.
False negative rate The proportion of persons with a disease in whom a screening test for that disease is negative.
False positive test The proportion of persons without a disease in whom the screening test for that disease is positive.
Fomite Inanimate object through which infectious diseases may be spread.
Host An organism (such as man) which is capable of being infected or affected by an agent.
Immunity Protection against the destructive effects of infectious organism.
Active Immunity immunity developed by a host in response to an infecting agent or a vaccine and usually characterized by the ability of the host to mount an immune defense.
Herd Immunity resistance of a group to invasion and spread of an infectious agent resulting from the presence of immunity in a high proportion of individual members of that group.
Passive Immunity immunity conferred by antibodies produced in another host; it may be acquired naturally by an infant from its mother or artificially by administration of an antibody-containing preparation.
Inapparent (subclinical) infection An infection resulting in no evident disease.
Incidence rate The number of new cases of disease, per unit population at risk for the disease, occurring during a stated period of time.
Incubation period The time interval between exposure to an agent and the onset of recognized disease caused by the agent. The term is usually applied to infectious agents, and is analogous to the term “latent period” applied to noninfectious agents.
Index case The first case in a particular disease outbreak. AN index case is often identified as a source of infection for subsequent cases.
Indirect transmission Transfer of an infectious agent from an infected host or reservoir to another host by means of a living organism or an inanimate object.
Infant mortality rate the number of deaths under 1 year of age occurring during a stated period of time divided by the total number of live births occurring during that period of time.
Infection Lodgment and multiplication of a microbial agent in man or another host.
Infectivity Ability of an agent to invade and multiply in a host.
Isolation The separation, for the period of communicability, of infected persons or animals from those that are not infected in order to prevent transmissions of the disease to susceptible individuals.
Morbidity Sickness
Mortality Death
Mortality rate The number of deaths occurring per unit population over a stated period of time.
Multifactorial etiology The causation of disease by several different agents acting separately or together.
Pandemic Unusually high level of disease occurrence, in the light of past experience, in several countries at about the same time.
Pathogenicity Ability to cause disease.
Person-years The sum of the number of years that each person in the study population has been under observation.
Prevalence rate The number of new and existing cases, per unit population, occurring during a stated period of time (period prevalence) or at one point in time (point prevalence).
Primary prevention The prevention of disease in persons who have not yet developed the disease.
Propagated epidemic An epidemic in which infections are transmitted from one susceptible host to another.
Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) The number of deaths form a given cause in specified time period, per 100 or 1000 total deaths in the same time period.
Quarantine The applications and enforcement of measures to prevent contact between persons suspected of being infected and persons uninfected by isolation of infected persons.
Rate A fraction in which the persons or events represented in the numerator are from the population represented in the denominator.
Ratio The relative size of two quantities expressed as the quotient of one quantity divided by the other.
Reservoir of infection Any living or non-living entity in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies; from such a reservoir the agent can be transmitted to a susceptible host.
Resistance The sum total of mechanisms by which a host prevents or limits the progress of invasion or multiplies; form such a reservoir the agent can be transmitted to a susceptible host.
Screening test A test or series of tests performed on apparently healthy individuals to determine whether enough evidence of a disease exists to warrant a further diagnostic examination.
Secondary attack rate The number of new cases of a disease which occur over a relatively short period of time within households or other close groups of person in which there is a first or primary case of the disease, per number of susceptible people in the group.
Secondary prevention The early detection of a disease and prompt and effective intervention to prevent reoccurrence or death from that disease.
Sensitivity The extent to which a test identifies as positive all individuals who have a given disease.
Specificity The extent to which a test identifies as negative all individuals who are free of a given disease.
Surveillance The ongoing observation of trends in disease incidence through systematic collection, collation, analysis, and evaluation of morbidity and mortality statistics.
Susceptible Having neither natural nor acquired immunity to a disease, and therefore liable to infection.
Tertiary prevention The reduction of impairments and disabilities , the minimization of suffering caused by the existence of disease and the promotion of the patient’s adjustment to irremediable conditions.
Validity (Accuracy) The closeness with which a measurement approaches the true or actual value.
Vector Any agent that transfers an infectious agent from an effected to a susceptible host.
Vector-borne transmission Transfer of an infectious agent from an infected host or reservoir to another host.
Virulence The degree to which an infectious agent can cause serious and/or fatal disease.
Zoonosis Disease normally occurring in lower vertebrate species which may be transmitted under natural conditions to humans.
Created by: khornbach