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illnesses that com from eating foods contaminated by bacteria food bourne
symptoms of food poisoning nausea, vomiting/diarrhea, fever and body aches
foods that are grown without any pesticides or synthetic fertilizers organic foods
rules for keeping food safe: don't buy damaged, do package inspections, keep hot stuff hot, keep cold stuff cold, keep clean, avoid cross contamination, refrig leftovers
An _____________ is the body's reaction to a _________. With a true food allergy, the body's immune system overreacts to substances in some foods. allergy, toxin
symptoms of allergies may be: rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, hay fever-like symptons
__________ ____________ = a negative reaction to a food or an ingredient in food that is not related to the body's immune system or to food poisoning. food tolerance
liable to spoil perishable
treated by a process of hearing to destroy or slow the growth of pathogens pasturized
electrically charged electrolytes
restore fluids rehydration
store glycogen carbohydrate loading
plant eaters vegans
nutrient suppliments pills, powders, liquids
mega doses large nutrient suppliments
food for sport: good nutrition, train more, increase fluid, water is best, pre-game meal, high carbs / low fat
physical activity any form of movement
two main classes of physical activities lifestyles, sports
lifestyle activities normal part of daily routine
examples of lifetime activities walking the dog, raking leaves
sport activities: competition with rules
list the 3 categories of sport activities: individual, partner, nature
define individual sport skill-oriented, by yourself
examples of individual sports golf, swimming, bicycling
examples of partner sports tennis, racquetball
examples of nature sports rock climbing, surfing, sailing, caving
list 6 basic measures of skills agility, balance, coordination, speed, reaction time, power
addition of body water hydration
loss of water dehydration
causes of thirst dehydration, high blood sugar
anabolic steriods increase muscle mass
negative consequences of anabolic steroids cancer/heart disease, skin problems, sterility
too little sleep causes: slowed reaction time, depressions, lack of concentration
how much sleep do teens need 8-10 hours
most common injuries from exercise muscular and skeletal
muscle cramps spasm and tightening
strain overworked muscles
sprain injury to tissue around joint
R.I.C.E. rest, ice, compression, elevation
list major injuries: fractures, dislocations, tendinitis, blows to the head
fractures break in bone
dislocation bone slips
tendinitis tendon stretched or torn
blow to the head brain swelling, unconsciousness or death
weather related risks heat stroke, heat exhaustion, overworking body, dehydration, frostbite, hypothermia
calories in 1 pound of fat 3500
measures energy calories
carbs and proteins have ____ calories per gram 4
fat has how many calories per gram 9
how many calories need per day depends on exercise - 2500
weigh over 10% standard overweight
have excess body fast obesity
below 10% weight underweight
ratio of height to weight body mass index
food high in nutrients relative to their caloric content nutrient dense
two main reasons people gain weight sedentary lifestyle, food habits
excess body fat can lead to: overloading work heart and lungs, diabetes, High bad cholesterol, hypertension, artherosclerosis, poor self esteem, sedentary lifestyle
being underweight can cause not enough energy, disease, iron-deficiencies, osteoporosis
measuring ________ _________ is the best way to determine a person's proper weight. __________ ____________ to determine the amount of body fat. body composition, skin calipers
steps to start a weight control plan target weight, smart goals, diet exercise, put in writing, avoid skipping meals, think positive, evaluate progress, be realistic
smart weight loss strategies fewer calories, burn more calories, eat 1400 calories, low calorie foods, eat goods in low #, take small bites, don't be near food, dont reward with food
benefits of regular exercise burns calories, muscles, appetite response, relive stress, metabolic rate, higher self esteem
weight cycling weight going up and down
fad diets weight loss programs
risky weight loss strategies fasting, liquid protein diet, diet pills
___________ _____________ are usually caused by an obsession with being ___________ __________ and also can be ___________. eating disorders, thin, psychological pressures, genetic
anorexia nervosa fear of becoming obese and usually results in self-induced starvation, anorexia = 'without appetite', nervosa = 'of nervous origin'
results of anorexia nervosa malnutrition, obsessive exercise, emotional problems, hormonal damage, diseased damage, distorted body image
____________ involves cycles of overeating and some form of purging bulimia
purging can lead to: dehydration, kidney damage, irregular heartbeat, tooth decay
3 types of resistance training: isometric, isotonic, isokinetic
isometric joint angle and muscle length do not change
isotonic tension remains unchanged, muscle length changes
isokinetic Exercise performed with a specialized apparatus that provides variable resistance to a movement, so that no matter how much effort is exerted, the movement takes place at a constant speed
formula for maximum heart rate 220-age
what should your target heart rate be between? 60-85%
rest heart rate # of beats while no exercise - average = 72-84
cross training doing different sports
overload working harder than normal
3 stages in an exercise program warm-up, workout, cool down
what happens if you stop exercising suddenly? less blood flow to brain
what is physical fitness ability to carry out daily tasks with ease
What are the 3 areas physical fitness affects: physical, mental, social
list the 5 components of physical fitness body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance
body composition ratio of body fat to lean body tissue
flexibility ability to move a body part in full range of motion
muscular strength amount of force a muscle can exert
muscular endurance ability of the muscles to do difficult physical tasks
cardiorespiratory endurance ability for organs to produce oxygen during long vigorous acitivity
exercise contributes to the functioning of 3 systems in our body: nervous, circulator, respiratory
sedentary lifestyle little movement or exercise
metabolism process energy from food
basal metabolism minimum energy to stay alive
calorie energy from food
aerobic (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity - living in air
anaerobic exercise exercise intense enough to trigger lactic acid formation. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass.
illness of the mind that can affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of a person, preventing them from leading a happy, healthful and productive life mental disorder
stigma shame
types of mental disorders organic (physical illness), functional (psychological - no brain damage)
main categories of functional disorders anxiety, somatoform, affective, personality
an illness in which real, imagined, or persistent fear prevent a person from enjoying life anxiety disorder
4 types of anxiety disorders: phobias, obsessive compulsive, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder
phobias: define and give examples fear so strong tat people go to extreme measures to avoid - claustrophobia, acrophobia
obsessive compulsive: define and give examples persistent, recurrent, unwanted thoughts that keep people from thinking other things - hand washing 30 times a day
panic disorder: define and give example condition in which fear or anxiety prevails and gets in the way of enjoying life - panic attacks, racing heart, fear of losing control or dying
post-traumatic stress disorder: define and example person experience traumatic event and feel severe and long lasting effects - veterans of combat, rape, natural disasters, plane crashes
an illness in which a person complains of disease symptoms, but no physical cause can be found somatoform - hypochondria
placebo pill medicine told to help but really has no medical purpose other than psychological effect
illness often with an organic cause that relates to emotion and may involve mood swings affective disorders
2 types of affective disorders clinical depression and bipolar disorder
clinical depression feelings of sadness or helplessness or despair which lasts for more than a few weeks
bipolar disorder rapid changes from happy to sad
3 types of personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder, passive aggressive personality disorder, schizophrenia
warning signs of suicide withdrawal from family, personality changes, drug and alcohol use, drop in grades, giving away possessions, increased risk-taking, violent actions, lack of energy or zest for life
environmental factors that influence food choice culture, family/friends, advertising, time/money, emotions
fastest period of growth a person experiences adolescence
adult years your _________ slows down and _________ _________ are needed. metabolism, less calories
6 nutrients carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water
starches and sugars found in food carbs
carbs are the body's glucose - chief energy source
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch like
proteins building and maintaining body tissue
amino acids body proteins
lipids fatty substances
linoleic acid essential fatty acid
cholesterol fat like substance made in liver
cabs contain ____ calories per gram 4
2 types of carbs and examples simple - fruit, vegis, milk, complex - starches, grains
before carbs can be used they must be converted to glycogen
glucose that is not used right away is stored as glycogen
when you consume more carbs than you use it is stored as adipose tissue - fat
special form of complex carb that cannot be digested fiber
functions of fiber helps move waste, reduce cancer
food that contain fiber, recommendation of how many grams per day wheat, 25
new proteins form constantly to replace damaged or worn out tissue
fata contain ____ calories per gram 9
2 types of fat saturated and unsaturated
fats carry which vitamins A,D,E, K
roles of fats surround and cushion organs, insulated body against temp, add flavor and take longer to digest
what 3 nutrients provide energy carbs, proteins and fats
Created by: serverge