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Health Exam 2

TermDefinition
The Six Classes of Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water
Macronutrients Carbohydrates, proteins and fats
Micronutrients Vitamins, minerals and water
Carbohydrates Best fuel - provide energy quickly and efficiently. Play important role in the functioning of internal organs, nervous system and muscles. Breaks down into glucose and is stores as glycogen in liver and muscle. 45-65%
Simple Carbohydrates Glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose
Glucose (monosaccaride) - most common form
Fructose (monosaccaride) - fruit sugar
Sucrose (disaccharide) - granulated table sugar
Lactose (disaccharide) - milk sugar
Maltose (disaccharide) - malt sugar
Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) - starches, fiber
Starches Grains, cereals, and vegetables. Stored in the body as glycogen (energy source)
Fiber "Bulk" or "roughage" Recommended amount - 20-35 grams/day
Fiber Non-digestible carbohydrates Indigestible portion of plants
Insoluble Fiber Found in bran, whole-grain breads, most fruits and vegetables
Soluble Fiber Oat bran, dried beans, some fruits and vegetables. Helps lower blood cholesterol levels and helps reduce risk for cardiovascular disease
Fibers offers many health protections Colon and rectal cancer, breast cancer (insoluble), constipation, heart disease, diabetes, obesity
Proteins Second most abundant substance in humans. Vital for human life - may need additional protein if fighting off infection, recovering from surgery blood loss or burns
Proteins Key to every cell, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones. Transport oxygen and nutrients
Proteins Role in developing/repairing bone, muscle, and skin
Amino Acids Building blocks of protein
Essential Proteins 9
Non-essential Proteins 11
Complete Proteins Supplies all essential amino acids
Incomplete Proteins May lack some amino acids, but these can be easily obtained from different sources
Protein Consumption Average american consumes more than 78 grams a day. 10-35% of calories should come from it. Few Americans suffer from deficiencies
Fats Maintain healthy skin, insulate body organs, maintain body temperature, promote healthy cell function
Fats Carry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, K, E,
Fats Are a concentrated form of energy
Fats Also called Lipids. Recommended amount, total - less than 30%, saturated - less than 10%
Good Fats Monounsaturated - lower LDL, increase HDL, polyunsaturated Omega 3 and Omega 6
Bad Fats Saturated, Trans Fatty acids
Saturated Fats Mainly from animal sources and are solid at room temperature
Unsaturated Fats Generally come from plants, and are usually liquid at room temperatures
Trans Fatty Acid Created by process of making liquid oil into a solid. Increase LDL levels while lowering HDL levels
Eating Trans fat Increases risk of coronary and heart disease and sudden cardiac death
Trans Fatty Acid Found in many margarines, baked goods, and restaurant deep-fried foods
Created by: sotti988