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10th Health

Chapter 1 Review

D1. pediatrician provides primary care for infants and children
D2. metabolism sum of all body activities related to the use of food and oxygen
D3. gastroenterology treatment of diseases and disorders of the digestive system
D4. digestion physical and chemical breakdown of complex nutrients into simpler water-soluble substances the body can use
D5. gingiva tissue surrounding the teeth
D6. peristalsis wavelike contractions that move food through the esophogus
D7. duodenum the first 10 inches of the small intestine
D8. blood cholesterol a fatlike substance that can accumulate in blood vessels and restrict blood flow
D9. amino acids long chains of building blocks that form proteins
D10. saturated fatty acid a straight fatty acid chain having as many hydrogen atoms as it can possibly hold
D11. unsaturated fatty acid a bent fatty acid chain having fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
D12. antioxidants substances that neutralize harmful molecules called free radicals
D13. kilocalorie the common unit for measuring the energy value of foods
D14. basal metabolism the lowest rate of metabolism while at rest
D15. nutrient density the proportion of nutrients compared to the number of calories the food contains
I1. the water-soluble vitamins vitamin C, B complex vitamins
I2. the fat-soluble vitamins vitamins A, D, E, K
I3. the vitamin that aids in proper blood clotting vitamin K
I4. the electrolytes chlorine, potassium, sodium
E1. Why is it important to eat foods with high nutrient density? to obtain all the essential nutrients; foods with low nutrient density provide calories but lack important nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber
E2. Why is yo-yo dieting not a recommended method for weight loss? The cycle of losing and gaining makes it more difficult for someone to lose weight because with each cycle the body fat content becomes higher.
A1. epinephrine adrenal gland
A2. insulin pancreas
A3. melatonin pineal gland
A4. somatotropin pituitary gland
A5. cortisol adrenal gland
A6. glucagon pancreas
A7. estrogens gonads
T1. What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins? Incomplete proteins (from plant sources) lack one or more of the essential acids. Complete proteins (from animal sources or combined sources) supply all of the essential amino acids.
T2a. Which macronutrient should supply the majority of your total daily calories? carbohydrates
T2b. Which food groups contain large amounts of this nutrient? breads and cereals, vegetables, fruits (Plant proteins from the meat group may also contain complex carbohydrates; milk products contain lactose, a simple carbohydrate)
T3. When might you need to monitor your intake of vitamins and minerals? if you are dieting or exercising strenuously on a regular basis
Created by: LiseBrinkley