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Epidemiology Test 1

Test 1

foundation on which public health was built epidemiology
what do we know about determinants? causes, etc. of health related events
how are epidemiologic studies done? through scientific investigations
what is epi a study of? 1. distribution 2. determinants
what are the two methods of investigation? 1. descriptive 2. analytic
what does the descriptive method of investigation consist of? personal charactersitics such as: age, gender, race, religion, etc.
what does the analytic method of investigation consist of? quantifying associations, testing the hypothesis and identifying causes
in epidemiology, what do we look at when we look at the number of cases? 1. frequency 2. distribution
patterns are established frequency
who, where, when, person, place, time distribution
to identify risk factors, what do we look at? casual associations
a step toward identifying causes is to determine what? risk factors
a behavior, environment exposures, inherent human characteristics risk factors
sum total of our being composition
what do risk factors increase? the probability of getting a disease or being involved in a health related event
the study of distribution and determinants of disease or any health related event epidemiology
what does the application of epi consist of? 1. prevention 2. control
studies occurence of disease/health related events in specified populations epidemiologist
epidemiology is all about what? meeting public health objectives and promoting over all health
what 3 types of health do epidemiologists promote? 1. mental 2. physical 3. social health
what else is epidemiology group medicine known as? population medicine
based on the medical model; haelth care provider to the patient clincial medicine
identifies: if, where, when, who and place that health problems occur public health assessment
what does a public health assessment serve as a guide to? and what are these based upon? 1. health planning 2. policy making 3. resource allocation based upon: need
what are some activities of epidemiologists? 1-7 1. ID risk factors 2. describe the natural history of a disease 3. identifies pop. at risk 4. identify where the public health problem is greatest 5. monitor events over time 6. eval effectivness of programs 7. incorporate programs in communities
what are some activities of epidemiologists? 8 and 9 8. a resource person or the go to for q&A 9. public health educator
historically, what was epidemiology to investigate? infectious diseases
what is another term for epidemic? outbreak
what can an epidemic result from? 1. a common source 2. propagated epidemic
a gradual epidemic spread from host to host propagated epidemic
an epidemic as a result of exposure to a source at a point in time common source epidemic
what are some examples of types of common source epidemics? chemical, radiation and food poisoning
when is something considered an epidemic? when it exceeds normal expectancy, above previous years
an ongoing, usual, constant presence of a disease in a community/group endemic
large scale; typically world-wide pandemic
what are the first two steps taken when an epidemic arises? 1. investigation begins 2. epidemiologist will look for and study the cases
anyone who has the disease case
how are cases found? (5 ways) 1. clinical records 2. screenings 3. surveys 4. general data registry 5. cases themselves
first disease case in population primary case
first case brought to the attention of the epidemiologists index case
is the index case the same thing as the primary casE? not always
cases that are infected off of the primary case secondary
shows all the signs and symptoms, but not yet diagnosed cases suspect case
no bumps, can only see macules
rash is rising above the skin surface papules
rash turns into sores vesicles
pus-filled; fever appears again pustules
will fall off after 3-4 weeks scabs
what are the 4 epidemiological factors that contribute to the outbreak of disease? 1. agent 2. host 3. environment 4. time related factors
chemical, physical, biological; can be a bacteria, virus, etc. agent
the lodging for the pathogen; may or may not develop the disease host
what are the 4 reasons that a host may or may not develop a disease? 1. the level of immunity of the host 2. genetic makeup 3. level of exposure 4. overall fitness
biological, physical, social, cultural environmental factors
heart health, respiratory health, etc. overall fitness
what are the 7 time related issues in regards to out break of a disease? 1. severity of illness 2. incubation 3. communicability 4. season/cycle 5. time of day 6. day of week 7. prognosis
the sum total of our being constitution
what four things does an epidemiological triangle consist of? 1. agent 2. environment 3. host 4. time
an epidemic can be stopped when one of the elements of the triangle is broken by doing one of what four things? 1. inferred with 2. altered 3. changed 4. removed from exisstance
any non-living object capable of transmitting disease; examples fomites; clothing, towels, toothbrush and utensils
tick, mite, mosquito, fly, etc.; they can spread disease by way of waste products, bite , body fluids, or indirectly through food contamination vector
spreading or harboring a disease carriers
a health carrier is also known as what? active carrier
an individual that has been exposed to and harbors a pathogen, but they have recovered healthy carrier
an individual that is in the recovery phase, but is still contagious convalescent carrier
beginning to show symptoms and are capable of transmission incubatory carrier
a person that has been exposed to and harbors, but can cause the disease to spread intermittent carrier
what are the four different types of transmission? 1. direct 2. indirect 3. airborne 4. waterborne
direct and immediate transmission of a pathogen from a host to a susceptible host direct transmission
through droplets or dust particles that can carry the pathogen airborne transmission
carried by a fomite to a susceptible host indirect transmission
a pathogen that is carried by way of water waterborne transmission
disease transmission occurs when the pathogen leaves the resevoir through a portal of exit; uses a mode of transmission, then the pathogen enters the body through a portal of entry and will infect the host if it is susceptible chain of infection
what are the two types of human reservoirs that are recognized? 1. symptomatic 2. asymptomatic
individual is showing symptoms symptomatic
no signs of disease, but can still spread the disease asymptomatic
what 2 things is prevention at its basic level? 1. behaviorally directed 2. lifestyle oriented
what are the 3 levels of prevention? 1. primary 2. secondary 3. tertiary
trying to prevent a disease or health related event from occuring at all primary prevention
what are the 3 facets of primary prevention? 1. health promotion 2. health education 3. health protection
early detection and prompt treatment secondary prevention
limiting disability by providing rehab tertiary prevention
Created by: taysam05