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Enviromental Science

Chapter 1

Exponential Growth In which a quantity increases at a fixed percentage per unit of time, such as 2% per year.
Environment The sum total of all living and nonliving things that affect any living organism
Environmental Science An interdisciplinary study that integrates information and ideas from the natural sciences(such as biology, chemistry, and geology) that study how humans and their institutions interact with the natural world.
Ecology a biological science that stuies the relationships between living organisms and their enviroment
Environmentalism A social movement dedicated to protecting the earths life-support systems for us and other species.
Sustainability/ Durability The ability of earth's various systems, including human cultural systems and economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely.
Natural Capital The natural resources and natural services that keep us and other species alive and support our economies.
Solar Capital Energy from the sun that warms the planet and supports photosythesis.
Trade-off A compromise to try to reEcostore degraded or cleared natural capitals (replant trees)
Sound Science The concepts and ideas that are widely accepted by experts in a particular field of the natural or social sciences.
Economic Growth An increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services.
Gross Domestic product (GDP) The annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
Per Capita GDP The GDP divided by the total populaton at midyear.
Economic development The improvement of human living standards by economic growth.
Developed Countries 1.2 Billion people; highly industrialized, and has a high average per capita GDP(US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and most European countries.
Developing countries Middle-Income, moderately Developed Countries (China, India, Brazil, and Mexico)
Environmentally sustainable economic development The goal is to use political and economic system to encourage environmentally beneficial and more sustainable forms of economic development and discourage envirometally harmful and unsustainale forms of economic growth
Resource Anything obtained from the environment to meet our needs and wants.
Perpetual Resource It is renewed continuously on a human time scale.
Renewable resource Can be replenished fairly rapidly (hours to several decades) through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is replaced.
Sustainable Yield The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply.
Environmental Degradation When we exceed a resource's natural replacement rate, the available supply begins to shrink.
Common-property/ Free-access resources Resources that no one owns and are available to users at little or no charge(air, open ocean etc)
Tragedy of the Commons In 1968, biologist Garret Hardin called the degradation of renewable free-access resources Tragedy of the Commons
Ecological footprint The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply an area with resources and to absorb the wastes and pollution produced by such resource use.
Per Capita Ecological Footprint The average ecologial footprint of an individual in an area.
Created by: clchristian